The computer is the system of that electronic device through which various information’s are processed on the basis of a definite set of instructions called program and mathematical (numerical) and non-mathematical bath types of information are processed.
The first mechanical computer was composed or fabricated by Blaise Pascal in 1642 and it is called Pascalene. But in 1833, Charles Babbage first time conceived an automatic calculator or computer. Charles Babbage is called the father of modern computer. Herman made an electronic tabulating machine based on punch cards which operates automatically.
In 1937,first mechanical computer mark-I was fabricated by Howard Akeen. The most outstanding contribution in the development of modern computer goes to John Wan Newmaan who brought the 2nd revolution in the area of computer in 1951. He discovered EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer ) and utilized the stored program and the binary number system in the computer.
FUNCTION OF COMPUTER
1.Collection and composition (input) of data.
2.Storage of data.
3.Processing of data.
4.Retrieval or output of the processed information’s and data.
UNITS OF COMPUTER
2.Central processing unit-CPU.
3.External Memory unit.
The CPU of the computer is called brain of the computer and sometimes CPU is also called Micro Processor of the computer. The data is entered through the input unit in the computer and through the central Processing unit with the help of External Memory Unit data are arranged and processed. Ultimately by the output unit these data or information’s are issued or released.
PARTS OF COMPUTER
Monitor: Monitor of the computer is like a television in which the picture appears in the form of doted points on the screen and these are called pixels.
Hard Disc and Floppy Disc: Hard Disc is the permanent disc in the computers which the Floppy Disc is the utilized when data or information’s are to be transferred from one computer to another.
Mouse: Mouse of the computer is like the remote control of TV through which computer is directly regulated or controlled without utilizing the key-board.
Printer: Printer is a device which prints any documents of processed information’s of the computer.
SOME HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES
- FORTRAN The language was developed for solving the mathematical formula very quickly and conveniently.
- COBOL This language was developed for the commerical purposes. For the processing of this language a group of sentences is selected called paragraph and all paragraphs composed are called a section,while all sections composed are called a division.
- BASIC In basic a definite part of the prescribed instruction is only inserted in the computer.
- ALGOL This was basically fabricated and designed for the complex algebraic calculations.
- PASCAL It is an amplified and modified form of ALGOL.
- COMAL This computer language is used for the students of secondary level.
- LOGO This language is used for children and kids for drawing Graphic line diagrams.
- PROLOG This language is developed in 1973 in France and this language is used for Artificial Intelligence which is capable and equivalent to the logical program.
- FORTH This language was invented by Charles Mure which is frequently used in all types of the works in the computer.
The computer virus is an electronic code which is used to abolish or eradicate the inclusive information’s or programs of the computer.Some important computer viruses are Micheleanjalo, Dork Avangor, Kilo, Filip, Macmug, Scores, Casecade, Jeruslem, Date crime, Coloumbs crime, Internet Virus, Pachcom, Pach EXE, COM-EXE, Marizuana, C-brain, Bloody, Chenge Mungu and Desi etc.
There are two types of networking’s which are usually occur-Local Area Networking (LAN) and Wide Area Networking (WAN). By LAN all the computers of the same buildings are connected like the computers of university premises, computer of offices etc.
By WAN all the computers of a large area are connected like the computers of all the offices of a city of town etc.In India a very large computer network namely INDONET has been installing through which all the main towns and cities has to be interlinked.
1.BIT The bit is a unit of measurement of the electronic data.One bit is either 0 or 1 but not both.On composing 8 bits, 1 byte is formed.
2.BUG The Bug is the error in the computer program or system and its eradication is called Debug.
3.BYTE Total eight bits compose a byte.Thus 8 bits =1 byte.
4.CD-ROM A CD like of music CD in which data can be stored substantially called CD-ROM. In a CD with comparison to floppy extremely more data can be stored but one problem in it is that one time recorded data can not be deleted or modified.
5.CHIP It is thin slice on which by a special mechanism a circuit is designed which is normally made from Silicon.
6.MEMORY SYSTEM The place where computer data and program are temporarily kept is called Memory system.Usually memory is implied from RAM.
7.MODEM The device which converts digital signals into analogue signals and vice-versa is called Modem.
8.RAM It is Random Access Memory (a place) where data to be processed are kept temporarily and it is unstable memory.
9.ROM It is Read Only Memory and it is stable or Non-valatile memory which doesn’t ended after power off.
10.SCANNER It is advice through which graphic image is transformed to digital image and the scanners are of usually two types one desktop and another hand operating.
Computers perform phenomenal feats of calculations, but they do not do so in a complicated way. They actually carry out very simple operations, such as addition and subtraction. They achieve their fantastic computing power by carrying out these operations at incredible speed.
The programme, or set of instructions for operating, is therefore written as a sequence of very simple steps. Several computer languages have been developed for different applications, including BASIC,COBOL,FORTRAN AND PASCAL. Writing programmes is very skilled and time-consuming work. But for most typical computer applications ready-written programmes are available, called “packages”.