what is a radio telescope

what is a radio telescope

The Universe


Space is an airless empty vast area, whose boundaries extend to infinity in all directions. The solar system, numerous stars, stellar dust and galaxies are all components of space. It has no air of any kind, nor is there a cloud. Day or night, the space is always black. No creature lives in space. Due to the vacuum, no creature can survive there.

There is no knowledge of the fact where the space begins. Space surrounds us. All we can say to explain this is that space starts from where the Earth’s atmosphere ends.

Today’s human is engaged in getting information about space objects by powerful radio telescopes, rockets, satellites, space vehicles and probes. New facts related to space have emerged in the new inventions.

The universe

  • Under the universe, all those celestial bodies and meteors and all the families, including the Sun, the Moon, Earth, etc. are studied.
  • Regular study of the universe began by Claudius Ptolemy (in 140 AD).
  • According to Ptolemy, the Earth is in the center of the universe and the Sun and other houses revolve around it.
  • In 1573, Copernicus accepted the Sun in the center instead of the Earth.
  • The space between the Earth and the Moon is called the Sissulonar.

Scientific hypotheses of the origin of the universe

  • Big Bang Theory – George Lemantor
  • Theory of Continuous Origin – Thomas Gold and Hamann Bondi
  • Theory of contraction release – Dr. Allen Sandies
  • The most modern source of cosmic information, Prof. By Jyokarya Burbiz, who proposed that each galaxy emits significant amounts of Hillium as a result of thermal nuclear reactions.
  • Light year is the distance, which is 29,7925 km in light zero. Per sec Or about 186282 mph. Sets at a speed of.
  • The cosmic unit refers to the average distance between the Sun and Earth, which is 149597870 km. (About 149600,000 km) or 15 km. is.
  • The Sun and its neighboring stars are normally 150 km in a circular orbit. Per cent Around the center of the Mandakini at an average speed of Rs. At this speed, in completing one round around the center, the sun has 25 crores; Takes years. This period is called the cosmic year.

The stars

At dusk, darkness begins to creep in and slowly stars start appearing on the sky. The stars look like bright dots, because they are so far away. The Sun is also a star but it does not look like other stars because it is much closer to us than other stars. If we get close to the stars, they will also appear like the sun. The stars are huge bodies of glowing gas. Some of these are much larger and brighter than the Sun, and others are smaller and fuzzier. Regal, the diameter of the blue white monster is 80 times the diameter of the blue white monster, its brightness is 60,000 times greater than that of the Sun.

  • The stars are formed by clouds of gas in the Akash Ganga. The stars emit continuous energy.
  • 98 percent of the Galaxy is made up of wires. These are the celestial bodies located in the heat and radiant universe of gaseous matter.
  • The Sun is also the star which is closest to the Earth.
  • Cyrus is the brightest star seen from Earth.
  • Vamana Tara is the star whose light is less than the Sun.
  • Jyotsna of giant stars is more than the Sun like Betelgeuse, Sirius, Antaris.
  • Nova The star whose brightness increases from 10 to 20 when gases are expelled.
  • Supernova star is more than 20 shining star. The brightest star seen from Earth is the Cress Dang star.
  • The reason for the formation of a black hole is the loss of energy of stars. Each star continuously emits large amounts of energy and continuously rotates due to which gravity increases. Due to this energy emission, the end comes at a time when the energy is exhausted and the wires stop flowing.
  • The change of light is reflected by the speed of stars or galaxies. If the star is towards the observer, its light will move towards the blue edge of the spectrum. But if the star is moving away from the observer, its light will slide towards the edge of the spectrum. This is called the dappler effect.
  • If the weight of the star is almost equal to that of the Sun, it gradually cools and converts to the first sphere, and then cools and finally turns into a small white body. goes. After some time, this small body absorbs the light falling on it.
  • It then turns into a black hole not seen by the eye.

The stars appear white, but not all stars are white, some are orange, red or even blue. The color of the hot wire is blue and the cold wire is red. The Sun is a yellow star. The temperature of the blue stars is 27,750 ° C and that of the sun is 6000 ° C. Therefore, no astronaut can ever land on any star.

The spacecraft takes three days to reach the moon. It takes several months to reach the Sun. The spacecraft may take thousands of years to reach the nearest star. To cover such a long distance Measuring in is a difficult problem. So scientists use light years and parsec units to measure the distance of stars. Light year is the distance, which is three million km of light. Walking at a speed of one second, decides in a year – that is, 30.857 × 1012 km.

It takes 1.3 seconds for the light coming from the moon to reach us. The light from the sun reaches us in 8 minutes and 18 seconds. But the light coming from Proxima Centauri, the closest star after the Sun, needs 4.2 light years to reach us. The distance of the farthest star in our Mandakini is about 63000 light years (19.325Pc). All stars are born in clouds of gas and dust. All the wires produce light and heat through their fusion activities.

Pulsar, Black Hole and Quasar


Pulsars are rotating stars from which radiation pulses, as a rule, keep coming. The term pulsar is used for pulsating radio stars.

When a large star explodes, its outer part collapses to form a nebula, and the core shrinks to a small dense star called a neutron star. Neutrons are very close in them and their density is also very high. They are very small and blurred. The average diameter of a neutron star is 10 km. it happens. Neutron stars are called pulsars.

The ray beam from the pulsar on the radio telescope produces a tick-like sound. Fast-moving neutron stars are like lighthouses in space. The interval between flashes of ordinary pulsars is 1 or 1/2 second. The most intensely pulsating Pulsar is NP0532, which is located in the Kreb Nebula. It vibrates 30 times in 1 second. The oldest and slowest rotating Pulsar NP0527 is. The interval between vibrations is 3.7 seconds. All pulsars produce a pulse in 0.03 seconds over a period of 4 seconds.

In general, pulsars cannot be seen with optical telescopes. Radio telescopes are needed to find them. There are only two pulsars that can be seen with optical telescopes. The first is in NP0532 Crab Nebula and the second is in PSR 0833-45 Gum Nebula. So far scientists have detected more than 100 pulsars.

Black hole

Even after the expiry of three times the huge stars from the Sun, some black areas of space are called black holes. Their gravitational force is so high that no object that enters a black hole can come out. Even light cannot come out due to gravity.

The earliest black hole was identified in 1972. This signal was in the double star of X-1. This double star is the source of X rays. It is a small companion of hers who is absolutely black. It is not a neutron star, so it is called a black hole. Black holes usually emit X rays and infrared radiation. Black holes are detected in space based on these radiations. The mass of black holes can be up to 100 million suns.


The word quasar is an abbreviation for quasi stellar radio sources. Quasars appear like a star. Optical telescopes resemble ordinary blurred stars, but radio telescope tests have shown that they are sources of radio waves. Maarten Schmidt discovered the 3C-273 quasar in 1962. It had an infrared displacement Z value of 0.158. This is an effect of wave motion, which is seen with moving objects. The displacement of the spectrum of the source of light coming near it is towards purple and the displacement of the spectrum of the light source going away is towards red. Infrared displacement indicates the light source moving away.

With quasars, we also get radio waves and x rays with light. The size of a quasar is 1 / 100,000th of our galaxy, but its brightness is 100-200 times greater. So far 1500 quasars have been discovered.

At night a milky river of light appears in the sky called the Milky Way or Milky Way. The Galileans, the Italian astronomer, were the first to see it through their telescope and say that it is in fact a huge beam of billions of twinkling stars. This is a galaxy. Our solar family is a member of this. Do not know how many solar systems are there.

All galaxies have huge strings of stars. These masses are so vast that some people call them the continents of the universe. Mandakini is spread throughout the universe. 100 million galaxies can be seen from powerful telescopes, which range from 1000 light years to 10 million light years. Most galaxies appear scattered in the sky. Mandakini are groups of millions of stars, dust and gases. It is estimated that when the first explosion occurred in the Brahmand, due to the outbreak of matter, huge groups of gas or proto galaxies started rotating at their own particular speed. Mandakini was formed in various shapes and forms due to slow and fast movement. The three main forms of galaxies known so far are spiral, elliptical and irregular.

Our Mandakini is a spiral galaxy. Its spiral arms extend far and wide, and in one of these arms our solar system is located. Mandakini is about 100,000 light years (30,600 PC) in diameter. Its center is covered with stellar dust particles. About 32,000 light years (9800PC) away from the Sun is the center of our Mandakini. It is estimated that it is 1200 crore 1400 crore years old and contains about 1500 thousand crore stars.

Mandakini is rotating on its axis. It rotates more rapidly at its center than at the edges. The central region completes a circle on its axis in about 50,000 years. Sun and its neighboring stars 250 km in a circular orbit. Circles around the center of the mandakini at an average speed of per second. It takes the Sun about 22.5 million years to complete a round. This period is called cosmic year.

Apart from Akash Ganga, there are thousands of millions of galaxies in the universe. These galaxies are expanding. There will come a time when they will start shrinking instead of spreading.

If we look closely at the sky Ganges, we also see black spots in the bright part. These are areas in which stars are low.


The Sun is a star of the Milky Way that is seen much larger than other stars because it is closer than the Earth. It is much shorter than some wires. Beetel Juj Tara is 800 times larger than the Sun.

The distance of the Sun from Earth is about 150 million km. is. Its diameter is about 1,400,000 km. Is 109 times the diameter of the Earth. Its gravity is 28 times greater than the Earth’s gravity.

The distance of the Sun from the center of the galaxy is 32,000 light years based on modern estimates. 250 km The Sun takes 22.5 million years to complete a round around the center at an average speed of one second. This period is called cosmic year. The Sun also rotates on its axis like the Earth. The Sun is made of gases so it can rotate at different speeds at different latitudes. Its period of rotation at the poles is approximately 24–26 days and at the equator is 34–37 days. It is 300,000 times heavier than the Earth.

The Sun is a great mass of glowing gases. It can be called a huge hydrogen bomb, because nuclear fusion produces a lot of heat and light. Life on Earth is possible only with the light and heat that comes from it. It takes 8 minutes 20 seconds for its light to reach the earth.

The visible outer surface of the sun is called the photosphere, which has a temperature of about 6000 ° C, but the center temperature is 15,000,000 ° C.

Flaring flames continue to rise from the surface of the sun or the photosphere, which are called solar flames. It is about 1000,000 km. Reaches altitude.

The Galaxy

The chemical organization of the Sun consists of hydrogen 71 percent helium 5 percent and other elements 2.5 percent.
8 m of sunlight reaching the earth. 6.6 cm Looks like.
Structure of the sun

The circle of light is the visible visible surface of the Sun.
On the edge of the circle of light, which is not bright, its color is red, it is called the chromosphere.
The aura is the outer part of the Sun (which is visible only at the time of eclipse).
X-rays are emitted from the corona and at the time of full solar eclipse, the Earth illuminates with this corona.
When the temperature of one part of the sun decreases compared to the other parts, it appears as spots, which is called solar stigma. The lifespan of this spot ranges from a few hours to a few weeks. Radio communications are interrupted after the solar stigma persists for several days.
Dark spots also appear on the surface of the Sun. They are colder than the Sun’s surface temperature (6000 ° C Celsius), about 1500 ° Celsius. The life span of these spots ranges from a few hours to several weeks. The temperature of a large spot can be up to 4000–5000 ° C. The spots are many times larger than our earth.

When sun spots stay for a long time, solar eruptions and solar flames begin to rise more. The result is that there is upheaval in the ionosphere and radio communications on Earth are interrupted.

Solar System

Our solar system is located in a corner approximately 30,000 to 33,000 light years from the center of the galaxy. The center of the solar system is located in the Sun. The Sun revolves around the Ganges. It performs a circumambulation in 2250 lakh years. The Sun is a star like other stars, the only difference being that it is closer to us than other stars. Surya has his own family. The Sun and its family are called the Solar System. The Sun’s family consists of nine planets, their satellites, comets, meteors and asteroids or asteroids.

The planet is such a celestial body that revolves around the sun, that is, orbiting it, just like our Earth. Sunlight falls on the planets, due to which they look bright. 99 percent of the solar family’s mass is due to the Sun. All the members of the solar system revolve around the Sun.

The nine planets are – Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn can be seen from Earth without binoculars. Astronomers knew them thousands of years ago. The other three planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto were discovered after the invention of the telescope. Uranus was discovered in 1781, Neptune in 1846, and Pluto in 1930.

The family of the Sun, that is, the planets, satellites, comets, meteors, asteroids, etc. are jointly called Solar Circles.
The solar system originated from the nebula.
There are total 8 planets in the solar system.
In order of increasing distance in Sun, planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Brahaspati, Saturn, Arun and Varun.
Yama is not included in the category of planets.
In the past few years, astronomers have estimated the existence of the tenth planet by several tests. But it has not been discovered yet. Astronomers will detect this in the near future.


There is a small planet closest to the Sun. It is so small that some planetary satellites are also larger than it. Mercury is very low in the sky, so it is not easy to see it. This planet can be seen immediately after sunset or before sunrise.

Mercury makes a detour on its axis in 58.7 days. It takes 88 days to revolve around the Sun. It is the fastest moving planet.

The planet closest to the Sun.
The Sun revolved in 87 days 23 hours.
One day of Mercury is equal to 90 days of Earth.
The result is the 18th part of the Earth.
There is a lack of air on Mercury.
The closest passing planet to Mercury – Mariner.
It is a planet whose distance from the Sun is not always the same, because its long, thin orbital path is like a lemon. Mercury revolves very slowly. One day there is equal to 59 days of our Earth. A part of this planet stays near the Sun for a long time, so the day’s temperature rises to more than 350 ° C due to the scorching heat of the Sun. Tin and lead are melted at this temperature. The second part of the planet on which the night takes place is relatively very cold. The temperature there reaches -170 ° C.

In 1974, images from Space Probe Mariner 10 showed that the planet is like the moon, which has rocks and pillars. There is no sign of water there. Mercury has no satellite nor is there any atmospheric gas.

Mercury Statistics

Average distance from Sun 0.39 au
0.54 au closest distance to Earth
One day of planet 58 days 15 hours of Earth
One year of the planet 88 days of Earth
Diameter 4,880 km
Mass 0.06 times the mass of the Earth
Surface temperature 350 ° C by day, 170 ° C at night
Gravity 0.38
Density 5.5 based on water


You must have seen a bright star in the sky at dusk. This star is also visible in the morning. It is called the star of dawn. But it is not the star, but Venus, the closest planet to the Earth. Venus feels like our moon when viewed from a telescope. It is the brightest planet.

The second planet from the Sun and the closest planet to the Earth.
The brightest planet is called. Because in the morning it appears in the east and in the evening in the west.
Most days and nights are long.
Earth is called twin sister due to the size and mass of the Earth.
The density of the atmosphere is 15 times that of the Earth’s atmosphere.
Many new facts regarding Venus have been revealed by Space Probes. Venus is the hottest planet. Its temperature at the equator reaches 480 ° C. At this temperature, lead, tin, and zinc all melt. Clouds on our Earth are more than 15 km. Go up, but Venus clouds 55 km. Reach altitude. The temperature of Venus clouds on the upper surface decreases to 35 ° C. This red warming planet is covered with clouds of snow.

Venus has 90–95 percent carbon dioxide in its atmosphere. There is also some hydrogen and water vapor. Its pressure is 100 times the pressure of the Earth’s atmosphere. Astronauts cannot survive by breathing in the air of Venus nor can it tolerate the heat there.

It is known by radio waves that Venus also has mountains and valleys. It has no satellite. On this planet, the sun rises in the west and sinks in the east.

Venus data
Average distance from the Sun is 0.72 au
Distance to Earth is 0.27 au
One day of planet 243 days of Earth
One year of planet 224.7 days of Earth
Diameter 12,104 km
Mass 0.82 times the mass of the Earth
Surface temperature 480 ° C
Gravity 0.88 compared to Earth
Density 5.25 based on water
Carbon dioxide, the major gas of the atmosphere


Earth, on which we live, is the third planet in the Sun’s family. This is the only planet in the solar system on which life exists. Like other planets, it is also orbiting the Sun. Earth is also blowing on its axis. One end of this axis is called the North Pole and the other is the South Pole. On the half of the earth where the sunlight falls, there is a summer season and in the other part it is cold these days. This is how the seasons on the earth change.

Earth (Blue Planet)

Earth ranks fifth in size.
Earth is similar to Venus in shape and texture.
When viewed from space, the color of the earth looks blue due to water and atmosphere.
The only satellite on Earth is the moon.
In 1961, the Soviet astronaut, Yuri Gagarin, first orbited the Earth on the spacecraft, Vostov, and looked at the Earth from space. When we look at the Earth from space or the moon, the green land and the blue waters of the oceans are visible, as shown on the globe. Many parts of the Earth are not visible from space because they are hidden under white clouds.

The only satellite on Earth is the Moon, which orbits the Earth. In fact, all satellites orbit their own planet.

Earth Statistics
100 more distances from the sun
One day of planet 23 hours 56 minutes 4.09 seconds
A year of the planet 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 45.51 seconds
Diameter 12,756 km
Surface area 510,065,600 sq km.
Mass 5.96 × 1012 kg
Surface temperature 22 ° C
Gravity 6.67 × 10-11 neutron m.2 / kg.
Density 5.5 × 103 kg / m3 Highest density
The major gases in the atmosphere are nitrogen, oxygen satellites.

The moon

The Moon is the only satellite on Earth. According to astronomers, both the Earth and the Moon formed separately, but at the same time, which later cooled to become planets and satellites. From the Moon, samples of rocks and soil planted by astronauts revealed that the Moon is as old as the Earth and it was formed about 460 million years ago.

Distance between Earth and Moon is 384,400 km. is. Its surface area is 37940,000 sq km. is. There are innumerable small pits on the lunar surface. These landfills are caused by meteorites falling. The mountains of the moon are high, but their ascent is sloping. There are no peaks, nor steep slopes. There is neither water nor air on the moon, so there is no life there either. There the day comes out suddenly and so is the night suddenly. There is no sound because there is no wind. The Moon’s gravity is 1/6 of the Earth’s gravity. If you jump one meter on the Earth, 6.05 meters will jump on the surface of the Moon. Similarly, weight also has an effect. The weight of any object on the surface of the moon becomes one-sixth. The temperature there falls to 120 ° C during the day and −160 ° C at night. On July 20, 1969, American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin conducted several studies on the moon.

Vyas – Approximately one fourth of the Earth’s diameter (3776 km).
Gravitational force – 1/6 part of the Earth.
The duration of the moon’s movement around the Earth is 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes.
The time it takes for the light of the moon to reach the earth is 3 seconds.
The sun shines on the same surface of the moon, its second surface remains in darkness. It completes one revolution of the Earth in 27.3 days. The moon does not have its own light. The sun’s rays fall on it, so we can see it, the moon does not always look the same. During the month, its shape changes and we don’t see it at all. When the Sun is on the other side of the Earth, then we see the full moon.

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth comes between the Moon and the Sun. Such a condition occurs only on the full moon day. That is, a lunar eclipse occurs only on a full moon.

The tides in the seas come due to the stretch in the moon. Although the Sun is also responsible for this, but the Moon is closer to the Earth than the Sun because of which the tides have more influence.

The distance of the moon with the help of laser rays is 3,84,00 km. Measured in which only 15 cm. Is an error of.

The diameter of the largest pit on the moon is 232 km. Which has a depth of 365.7 meters. The rocks collected from it are aluminum, iron, magnesium etc. There are also silicates here.

The diameter of the moon is 3476 km. is. The Moon is 81.3 times heavier than the Earth and 49 times larger than the Moon.

The Black Hole


Mars is the fourth planet according to the distance from the Sun. It is about half the size of our Earth. It looks bright red in favorable state, hence it is also called red planet. Mars is tilted like the Earth on its axis. Its polar regions are alternately exposed to the sun, bringing summer and winter seasons in each hemisphere. There is a cloud of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere here.

Mars (Red Planet)

The fourth planet from the Sun revolves around the Sun – 1 year, 321 days, and elliptical in shape.
Chemical constituents – carbon dioxide (95 percent), 2-3 percent nitrogen, about 2 percent argon some amount of ice climate, ammonia and methane.
Volcano-Nix Olympia, the highest mountain in Mars.
Mars has two satellites – Phobos and Dimoran.
Mariner 9 Space expedition to Mars.
Asteriod Belt between Mars and Brahaspati.
Asteroid (asteroids) meet.
Many stories have been written and films have been made about Mars and the people there, but space discoveries showed that there is no life there.

From the images obtained from Space Probe Manier 9, it has been found that deep marshes on Mars are dusty valleys and high rises. There is more volcanic mountain than earth. Nix Olympia is a volcanic mountain about three times higher than the peak of Everest on Mars. It is 24 km from the surface of Mars. Is elevated, 65 km in it. There are long huge ice caves.

In 1976 Viking space probes (Viking-1 and Viking-2) were sent to Mars, which was intended to explore the possibilities of life on Mars. But their discoveries showed that there is no life on Mars. The absence of any organism on Mars is not surprising, because the temperature there does not rise higher than the freezing point of water. There is no water on Mars. Mars has two small satellites – Phobos and Decimos.

Mars related data

Sun and average distance 1.52 au
Distance to Earth is 0.38 au
24 hours and 37 minutes of Earth on a day of planet
One year of planet 687 days of Earth
Diameter 6,795 km,
Mass 0.11 times the mass of the Earth
Surface Temperature -23 ° C
8.38 times the gravity of the earth
Density 3.94 Compared to Earth
Carbon dioxide, the major gas of the atmosphere
Satellite 2


Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar family. Our 318 Earths can fit into Jupiter. Jupiter is a house made of gases. Characteristics of both star and planet are found in it. All planets receive energy from the Sun, but Jupiter continues to spread its radio energy by exploding across long web lengths. This is the most powerful radio waves in the solar system after the Sun.

Its atmosphere consists mostly of hydrogen and helium. Methane and ammonia are also present there. Jupiter’s atmosphere is like our primeval earth. Hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water, from which life began on Earth, are likely to have started a similar process of life in Jupiter. Has been done

Fifth planet from Sun, orbiting Sun 11 years 315 days, 1 hour.
The largest planet in the solar system.
Jupiter has 28 satellites. Among them are Ganymede, Callisto, Ayo, Europa. Ganymede is the largest satellite in the solar system.
The identical red spots on Jupiter were discovered by the Pioneer Space Expedition.
The heaviest planet and its escape velocity is the highest (59–64 km / s).

In late 1973, the first space probe Pioneer 10 reached Jupiter. His research revealed that Jupiter has a magnetic field. For scientists, the waves coming from this magnetic field are still a mystery. Scientists believe that life exists somewhere on Jupiter.

Voyager-1 and Voyager-2 passed through Jupiter in 1979. The nearest picture of Jupiter is 18 lakh km from that planet. Drawn from a distance of. 30 km around the planet. Thick rings were also detected. He came to know about the presence of volcanoes and elements like sulfur and oxygen on a satellite. Europa, another satellite of Jupiter which is shaped like our moon, is covered with snow. In some places the ice surface is 100 km. Is thick.

Jupiter is always surrounded by clouds. 5 bright strips and four thick brown stripes are seen around the planet. An oval mysterious red spot appears on the planet. It is three times larger than the Earth in size. It is an endless storm, which seems to be a permanent part of this planet. It is 40,000 km to Jupiter. Long and 4000 km. Wide areas are covered.

Jupiter has 16 satellites.

Jupiter related data

Average distance from the Sun is 5.20 au
3.95 au closest distance from Earth
9 hours 50 minutes a day of planet Earth
One Year of the Planet 11.86 Years of the Earth
Diameter 1,42,800 km
Mass 317.9 times the mass of the Earth
Surface temperature – 150 ° C
Gravity than Earth 2.64
Density 1.33 based on water
Number of rings 1
Satellite 16

Saturn is the sixth planet according to the distance from the Sun. It is the most beautiful of the planets. Like its neighbor Jupiter, it is also similar to a gas sphere, but somewhat smaller in size. Our 95 Earths can fit in it. The rings of this huge planet of hydrogen and helium have made it even more mysterious. These rings are about 275,000 km. And are moving around the planet. In 1980, it was discovered by Voyager-1 and Voyager-2 spacecraft that these rotating rings are made into innumerable particles. Voyagers have helped us measure these particles. The diameters of these particles have been found to range from a few centimeters to 8 meters. The number of rings is more than 1000.

The second largest planet of the solar system in the sky.
Titan- Cassini Huygens Mission – Titan Satellite-related Discovery.
The biggest feature of Saturn is: its round ring, which is -10.
Chemical organizations are mainly hydrogen and Hillium gases, some amount of methane and ammonia.
Saturn’s satellites are – 31.
Titan is Saturn’s largest satellite, equivalent to Mercury. Nitrogenous atmosphere and hydrocarbons have been found on Titan.
The names of other main satellites of Saturn – Mimas, Encylgdu, Tethys, Rea, Fowey etc.
The planet with the lowest density is (7).


Fowey revolves around the orbit of Saturn.
Saturn is the last planet seen with eyes.
Like Jupiter, Saturn also has a red spot, but is relatively small. It has a white oval and a patchy hulk and thick clouds. Saturn has very strong winds, whose velocity is about 1760 km. Is hourly. Its surface temperature is –180 ° C.

21 satellites of Saturn are known so far, they seem to be made of ice. Its largest satellite Titan is estimated to have an atmosphere. This satellite is larger than the planet Mercury.

Saturn statistics

Average distance from Sun
Distance closest to Earth
10 hours 14 minutes a day of planet Earth
One year of planet 29.46 years of Earth
Diameter 120,000 km
95.2 times the mass of the Earth
Surface temperature – 180 ° C
Gravity 1.15
Density 0.71 lowest density based on water
The major gases in the atmosphere are hydrogen, helium
Number of rings over 1000
Satellite 21


Uranus was discovered in March, 1781 by Sir William Herschel. Uranus is much smaller than Jupiter and Saturn, but much larger than Earth. It can contain our 15 Earths. Uranus appears green when viewed with binoculars. Most of this planet is made up of methane gas. It is a cold planet whose surface temperature reaches –210 ° C.

In 1977 astronomers discovered that Uranus had blurred rings around it. All these rings are 64000 km. Are within the range of. This is the range within which a huge satellite will be torn to pieces by its tidal forces.

Uranus has been circling the Sun for 84 years on Earth and a day there is equal to 10 hours 49 minutes of Earth.

Uranus has five satellites. Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberan.

Uranus statistics

Average distance from the Sun is 91.18 au
Distance to Earth 17.28 au
One day of planet 10 hours 49 minutes of Earth
One Year of the Planet 84.01 Years of the Earth
Diameter 50,800 km
14.6 times the mass of the Earth
Surface temperature – 210 ° C
Gravity 1.17
Density 1.7 based on water
The major gases in the atmosphere are hydrogen, helium, methane
Number of rings 9
Satellite 5


In 1849 the planet Neptune was discovered by astronomers, Adams and Laverrier. It is a cool green planet, whose surface temperature is around −220 ° C. Our 17 Earths can be captured in Neptune. It is estimated that there are rings around Neptune like Uranus, but no evidence can be found yet. One day of Neptune is equal to 18 hours 26 minutes of Earth and one year there is equivalent to 164.8 years of Earth.

The eighth planet from the Sun.
The fourth largest planet of the solar system in the sky.
There are 5 rings around this planet.
There are 11 total satellites.
The first satellite is Triton, the second is Nerid, the other satellites are N1, N-2, N-1, N-3, N-4 etc.
Neptune’s two satellites are Triten and Nerid. Triten is relatively larger than Pluto. Its diameter is 3700 km. is.

Neptune statistics

Average distance from Sun 30.06 au
The closest distance from Earth is 28.80 au
18 hours 26 minutes a day of planet Earth
One year of planet 164.8 years of Earth
Diameter 48,500 km
17.2 times mass than Earth
Surface temperature – 220 ° C
Gravity 1.2
Density 1.77 based on water
The major gases in the atmosphere are hydrogen, helium, methane
Satellite 2

After the discovery of Neptune, the topographer thought that there is another planet which is far away from it. After all, Pluto was discovered in 1930. The credit for finding it goes to Claude William Toumbodh. This planet is slightly smaller than Mercury. Here the sun shines for about [latex] 6 \ frac {1} {2} [/ latex] hours. It is a very cold planet. The temperature here is -230 ° C. The Sun looks like a bright star from the planet, because it is 59000 million kilometers away from the Sun.

There is no air on Pluto. It is a rocky ball. The astronaut can land here, but to avoid chill, he will have to wear a space suit and must also arrange for air to breathe.

Pluto is a satellite. Its orbit bisects Neptune’s orbit, so it is thought that it is a satellite emanating from Neptune.

Key features related to planets

Largest – Jupiter
Smallest – Wed
Warmest and closest to the Sun – Mercury
Coldest and farthest – Yama
Brightest – Venus
Most Satellites in Planets – Saturn
Largest satellite of solar system – Ganymede
Planets with zero satellites – Mercury and Venus
The planet whose number of satellites is one – Earth
Except Venus and Uranus, the direction of rotation and orbit of all planets remain the same. Venus and Uranus rotate on their axis from east to west.
Mercury, Venus are inferior or asteroids.
Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – are internal planets.
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto – are outer planets…

Pluto data
Average distance from Sun 39.44 au
Distance to Earth 28.72 au
One day of planet 6 days 9 hours of Earth
One Year of the Planet 247.7 Years of the Earth
Diameter 3,000 km
0.002–0.003 times the mass of the Earth
Surface temperature – 230 ° C
Methane gases in the atmosphere
Satellite 1

Hidden planet

The planets and their moons are large members of the family. Apart from these, there are also some small members, who are called the planets. Mars and Jupiter are the most remnant of planets between the planets. Their distance from the Sun is 2.2–3.3 au. They are also revolving around the Sun. It is estimated that there are 40,000 to 50,000 remnant planets in this strip. Most of these are so small that their diameter cannot be measured by popular methods. The largest of these is Ceres, whose diameter is 1003 to 1040 km. is. It was discovered in 1801. The only remnant planet that can be seen without binoculars is the 4 Vesta, whose diameter is 555 km. is. The distance that the closest planet has come to when it is closest to the Earth is Hamiz. Its distance from Earth is 780,000 km. Or 0.006 au. It is now extinct.

No one knows how to become a planets. Some people speculate that these are fragments of a planet that may have been located between Mars and Jupiter. It is also said that these are the broken parts of the planet Mars and Jupiter. Some hidden planets can also be fragments of comets.

Meteor and meteorite

Sometimes a shining point in the sky disappears at night, drawing a bright line. This is commonly called star breakdown. But the stars never break, these bodies that fall and break are not stars, but meteors. They enter the Earth’s atmosphere at great speed and are rubbed into the air and burned. This burn of them looks like a falling star. Meteors are not members of the solar family. When an celestial body approaches the earth in motion, it is pulled from the attraction power of the earth and comes towards the earth and falls on the earth.

Not all the fallen meteors of the sky reach the earth. Most of them are burnt by the rubbing of air along the way or become steam and ash, but when a meteor is not fully burned and falls to the earth, its remains are called meteorites.

Pits have formed only after meteorites have fallen on the planets Moon, Mars and Mercury. The largest hole on Earth in northern Arizona is probably made up of a meteorite collision. The 1265 m diameter crater has a depth of 175 m. This pit was built about 25,000 years ago.

It is estimated that seven and a half million meteors enter the Earth’s atmosphere every day. Their speed is 35-95 km. Per second. A simple meteor takes about a second to evaporate. Every year about 500 meteorites fall on the surface of the Earth. The largest meteorite that fell to the earth was 37 tons. There are three types of meteor bodies. Comet-like, stone-like and fire-like. Most meteorites are made up of stone, iron, nickel and other elements.

Celestial body

Akash Ganga or Mandakini, is a huge beam of stars, there are 10,000 million (1010) sky Ganges in space. There are 100000 million (1010) stars in each galaxy, in addition to stars, dust and gas are found in the galaxy.
The Niharika is a highly luminous celestial body composed of particles of gas and dust.
The planetarium is a group of stars, 89 constellations have been identified at this time. Hydra is the largest among them. These are constellations like great beer, black men etc.
The strip of twelve constellations is called the zodiac.
Quasars are celestial bodies smaller in size than the Milky Way, but emit more energy.
Caudal stars or comets are masses of celestial dust, ice and glacial gases that revolve around the Sun in long but irregular orbits. In 1986, after the interval of 76.3 years, Hailey Punchlatara was seen near the Sun in a telescope.
The largest meteorite was found in Hoba West near Grutfontein in South West Africa in 1920. It weighs 60,000 kg. is. It had fallen during prehistoric times.

Some meteorites are kept for spectators in the Ajaybaug of Kolkata. 672 meteorites are housed in various museums in the US.


Comets are such celestial bodies that have a long shiny tail like smoke. They are also called the tail stars. Earlier people used to get scared on seeing them. They considered him a sign of destruction. But now people have come to know their secret and now they do not understand this.

A comet is like many celestial bodies of the solar family. Like the earth, they also have a fixed path, but their size varies. It is estimated that there are about 1000 comets in 100 years, which can be seen without binoculars. The Haley comet is the most famous of these, which passes through the sun 76 years later. It was first seen by the British astronomer Edmund Healy in 1682. In his name, it is called Haley Comet. It was seen a few years ago in 1986. At that time, the Gotti Space Probe took photos of it. It will now be seen in 2061. Haley is the largest of all the comets discovered so far.

A comet has three parts. Navel, head, and tail. The navel is the freshest part of the comet’s head. The diameter of the navel can be up to 100–10,000 meters. The diameter of the navel of the Haley comet is about 5,000 meters. This contaminated dust of ice made of many elements like ammonia, dust, gas, this contaminated ball of ice made of many elements like gas is called navel. Reflecting light is seen flashing from the center of the head. The part around the navel is called the head. It is made up of gas and dust, with a diameter of 2,000,000 lakh km. Can be more than. The head is surrounded by clouds of hydrogen gas. The tail is a special part of the comet. There are two types of comet tail. Dusttail which is one million to one crore km. It is long and plasma tail ie the tail of extremely hot ionized gas which is 100 million km. It is long.

A comet’s tail is formed only when it comes close to the Sun. Sunlight covers some of the gas in their head and this gas starts shining like a tail. As soon as it comes to the Sun, circling very fast, moving its tail and walks away from the Sun. The comet’s tail is always in the opposite direction to the Sun.

space probes

On October 4, 1957, Russia sent the first satellite Sputnik-1 into space. This day can be called the beginning of the space age. After its success, the second satellite Sputnik-2 has been launched on November 3, 1957, in which a bitch was sent to Laika. Its study revealed that humans can also survive in space.

On February 1, 1958, the US launched its first satellite, Explorer-1. Thus the Sputnik of Russia and America’s esploir began the space mission.

Vostok-1, the first manned satellite to Russia, flew on 12 April 1961 to make a revolution of the Earth. In this vehicle, Colonel Yuri Gagarin first revolved around the world and saw the earth and sky from space. He became the first person to go into space.

Russia’s Lieutenant Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman to go into space. On June 16, 1973, he made 48 revolutions of the earth in Vostok-6 in 2 days 22 hours 42 minutes.

On June 3, 1965, US-based Gemini 4 astronaut Edward White stepped out and floated in space for 21 minutes. He was the first person to walk in space.

In 1965, a series of two-person Gemini flights began. The crew of the program practiced full acrobats, postage procedures and walking in space at risk for the Apollo expedition to be sent to the moon. Success in the lunar expedition was achieved after these. Altogether 12 people went to the moon.

Travel to the moon

The three-man Apollo-2, which had plenty of space for drivers to move around and even stand upright, left for the moon on July 16, 1969. The special thing about the Apoles landing on the moon was that two people could touch the Moon Earth by its four-legged lunar module eagle.

The lunar module landed on the moon at 10:56 am on the night of July 20, 1969, and Neil Armstrong made his first move to the lunar surface. This was the first small step of humans on the Moon Earth.

Neil Armstrong, in his radio message sent to the earth, said that this little step of man is a big leap for the entire humanity. After this, Edwin Aldrin also landed on the Earth of the Moon. Passed on the surface of the Moon inside the ship as ordered by Michael Collis. Armstrong wandered on the moon for a quarter to two hours, Aldrin traveled for a short time. During this, he made 20 kg. Collected more rocks and soil. From the same period, one ruby ​​laser beam was sent to the surface of the moon, which was received back from the retrograde world on Earth. They measured the distance from the Earth to the Moon. This was a huge achievement for humans.

Following this success, the following individuals traveled to the moon during the Apollo program. They are 3800 kg. They brought loads of rocks and mud from there.

Apollo – 12 Conrad, Gordon, Bean November 14, 1969

Apollo – 14 Shepard, Mitchell. Rouge January 31, 1971

Apollo – 15 Scott, Irvine, Wadden 26 July 1971

Apola – 16 Young, Duke, Mattingley April 16, 1972

Apollo – 17 Cernan, Schmidt, Evans, 7 December 1972

The total estimated expenditure on the US program of sending humans to space until the lunar mission of Apollo-17 was $ 255.41 million. The US invented the space shuttle to reduce costs. It is a spacecraft that can be used again and again like an aircraft. Its speed is about 28000 km. Hourly. The first space shuttle Colombia left on 12 April 1981. Russia launched its type of spacecraft named Buran in September 1988, which successfully completed its target and returned to Earth. Even today, Space Shuttle expeditions are going on, although two Space Shuttle accidents have occurred, and the passengers who go in them are sitting.

Chemical organization – mainly silicon, iron and magnesium.
Sound is not heard on the moon because there is a lack of medium.
Leibniz Mountains (35000 feet), the highest mountain of the moon
Much larger than the normal satellite in the entire solar system. It is 1/4 the size of the Earth (Common satellites are the 8th part of the sky of their parent planet.)
The maximum distance of the Moon from Earth is 404336 km, minimum distance is 8 km.
Age of the moon 460 million years


The moon is a science studying physical geography.
Only 54 percent of the moon can be seen from the earth.
The part of the moon that is not visible from the earth is called the Sea of ​​Tranquility.
There are about 30,000 craters on the moon, Clavius ​​(the largest), Tycho, Copernix. These craters are meteoric and volcanic.
The moon, like the Sun, is from Dakshinayan in reference to the equator. The Moon travels between 29 ° n to 28 ° s in 5 days, which is called Samyuti month.
Planets and their satellites
Planet satellite
Mars Phobos, Demos
Earth Moon
Jupiter Ganymede, Europe, Io, Callisto, Métis, Thebe
Arun Miranda, Juliet
Neptune Triton
Saturn Titan, Tethys Atlas, Pandora


Earth always rotates from west to east on a hypothetical axis. This motion of the Earth is called rotation or rotation speed. There is a day when the Earth revolves around its axis. This speed is also called daily movement.
The axis or axis on which the Earth rotates is an imaginary line that joins its northern and southern poles through the center of the Earth. This axis of the Earth makes an angle of 66 degrees with its orbital plane. This axis of the Earth is always tilted on the same side.
The axis of the earth between the successive passes of a certain constellation above a mid-line is always tilted on the same side. The length of a nakshatra day is 23 hours 56 minutes and 09 seconds.
The period of a day is calculated on the diet of the time taken between two successive passes of the mid-day sun, above a certain mid-day line, it is a solar day. The average length of a solar day is a full 24 hours, the solar day is 3 minutes and 56 seconds larger than the constellation day.
Their mass should be so that they are almost circular in shape due to their gravity to avoid the influence of the outer planets.
They do not encroach other planetary orbits. (Pluto’s orbit is tilted compared to other planets and transits Arun’s orbit)

Earth and Solar System (some technical terms)

Daily Speed: A round of the Earth’s rotation on its axis that occurs one day.
Annual Speed: An orbit by the Earth around the Sun in its orbit in which it takes 365 (1/4) days.
Nakshatra Day: The period between successively passing twice of a certain constellation above a mid-line.
Solar Day: The period between the successive twilight of the mid-day sun rising above a certain mid-day line.
Upasour: The position of the distance from the Sun that is highest on July 4 in order of the period of the Sun’s orbit around the Earth in its elliptical orbit.
Cancer solstice: The position of December 22 in the order of the orbit of the Sun by the Earth when the sun shines vertically on the Capricorn line.
Equinox: The conditions of March 21 and September 23 when the sun shines vertically at the equator, causing the two hemispheres to be equal day and night everywhere. The state of March 21 is called the state of Bastan equinox and September 23 is called the state of Sharad equinox.
Sijigi: A linear position of the Sun, Moon, and Earth.
Viुuti: The position of the Earth between the Sun and the Moon, causing a lunar eclipse.
Yuti: The position of the Moon between the Sun and the Earth, causing the solar eclipse.
Due to the earth’s rotations, every part of the earth turns to face the sun in turn, so the day in front of the sun is in the front and the night in the back part. Thus the order of day and night is the result of the rotation speed of the Earth.
A day of 24 hours duration comes into existence.
The latitude and longitude are determined on the basis of the axis of rotation.
Physical and biological processes are affected on Earth.
Coriialis force is generated due to which water and winds in the northern hemisphere turn to their right and in the southern hemisphere to their left.
Tides occur in the oceans.


The orbit of the Earth’s orbit is elliptical. Thus, the distance between the Earth and the Sun does not remain the same throughout the year. In January, it is closest to the Sun. At this time the distance between Earth and Sun is 470 lakh km. it occurs. This state of the earth is called Upasour. In July, the Earth is further away from the Sun. At this time the distance between Sun and Earth is 470 lakh km. She lives. Therefore, this state of the Earth is called Apsour. The condition of Apsour occurs on 4th July. The following effects of the Earth’s rotation speed can be seen-
The rays of the Sun shine directly and diagonally, determine the period of the year, determine the Cancer and Capricorn lines, have 6-6 months of night at the poles, vary the temperature distribution on the ground, determine climate tropics, day and night To be small.
Season change

Day and night are always equal at the equator, because the equator always divides the equator into two parts. But since the Earth is tilted 23 (1/2) ° on its axis, and is always tilted on the same side, the light circles do not divide all the latitude lines of the northern and southern circles apart from the equator. Divides unevenly into seasons. As a result, the day and night periods are not the same in the remaining parts of the equator.
Based on the above description, the following are briefly the reasons for being small from day to night.
Earth’s annual speed
Always bending the surface of the Earth’s axis to 66 (1/2) °
Always bending one side of the earth’s axis
There are four main states in the rotation of the earth and the seasons change in these four states.

Note: The axis of the Earth makes an angle of 23 (1/2) ° from the perpendicular to its orbit.

When the sun shines vertically on the Tropic of Cancer. At this time, the northern sky has the highest elevation of the Sun, making the days here larger and nights shorter. Therefore, there is a summer season in northern rounding. This situation occurs on June 21 and this condition is called Makar Sankranti or Summer Endowment.
On the 22nd of December, the south pole faces the Sun and the Sun shines vertically on the Tropic of Capricorn, which leads to the summer season. In this condition it is called Makar Sankranti or Cold Age. At this time, the sun shines diagonally, making the days shorter and nights larger, and the winter season due to less heat.
On 21 March and 23 September, the sun shines vertically at the equator. At this time half of all latitude lines remain in light. Due to which day and night are equal everywhere, due to the similarity of day and night in both hemispheres, both these conditions are called equinox or equinox day. The state of spring on March 21 is called the Sharad equinox stage.
Thus, there are different reasons for change of seasons –
– Tilt of Earth’s axis.

– Always tilt on one side of the earth’s axis.

– Earth’s rotation or annual movement.

– As a result of these three, day and night keep getting bigger and smaller.

Moon phases

Rising moon
Declining Moon – Krishna Paksha
A linear position of the Sun, Moon and Earth is called Sijigi, which occurs in two ways.
Surya – Moon – Earth – Yuti
Sun – Earth – Moon – Viyuti
Latitude, longitude international date and time determination

Axis: An imaginary line joining the North Pole and the South Pole on which the Earth rotates.

Latitude is the measurement of the angular distance of a given point north or south from the equator. That is, the imaginary line drawn from west to east on the globe is latitude. Which is displayed in degrees.
All latitude lines are parallel. Their number is 180 and is displayed in degrees. The distance between the two latitudes is 111 km. it occurs. Equatorial circle represents 0 degree latitude. All latitudes north of the equator are called northern latitudes and all latitudes south.
The equatorial circle is the largest among the latitudes circle drawn on earth. Its length is 40069 km. is.

Some important latitudes

The Cancer Circle is an imaginary circle drawn at an angular distance of 23 (1/2) ° from the equatorial circle in the northern hemisphere.
The Capricorn circle is an imaginary circle drawn at an angular distance of 23 (1/2) ° from the equator in the southern hemisphere on the surface.
The Arctic Circle is an imaginary circle drawn at an angular distance of 66 (1/2) ° from the equator in the northern hemisphere on the surface.


The angular position of a place is to the full and west of Prime Yamantri (0 ° Greenwich). It is called longitude. The line passing through the Greenwich location of England is called the 0 ° longitude or Greenwich line. Its longitude up to 180 ° east, all longitude from east longitude and Greenwich longitude to west is called western longitude.
The earth rotates 360 ° longitudinally in 24 hours. Therefore, the rotation speed of the Earth is 15 degrees longitudinal hour or one longitude per four minutes.

Some important longitudes

According to an agreement reached in Washington in 1884, the longitude 180 ° is called the International Date Line. This line extends from north to south in the Pacific Ocean.
Due to the cutting of many islands, this line has been shifted somewhere from 180 ° longitude like –
66 (1/2) ° northward tilt eastward to keep a time in the Bering Strait and eastern Siberia.
52 (1/2) ° northward westward, at the same time to the Alushian Islands and Alaska.
52 (1/2) ° southward tilt to the east, to keep the same time in Ellis, Wallis, Fiji, Tonga, New Zealand and Australia.
If the international date line is crossed, the date changes by one day. If a passenger crosses the international date line in the east to west (Asia to North America) direction, he will be one day behind.
Similarly, if a traveler travels from west to east (North America to Asia) then he will be one day ahead.
If it is midnight on the international date line, then if it is Friday towards the Asian part, then it will be Thursday for the American part.
Greenwich Mean Time – The imaginary line passing through the Greenwich Observatory at zero longitude near England has been considered the prime meridian.
The Green Witch is at a longitude 0 ° longitude that passes through Greenland and the Norwegian Sea and Bitrain, France, Spain, Algeria, Male, Burkinafaso, Ghana and the South Atlantic Sea.
Authentic Time – Since the local time of the locations at different longitudes varies, it causes a big difference in the time between places from the corner of a large country. As a result, there is a major hurdle in the operations of tertiary businesses. In order to remove this obstacle and disturbances of time, the local time of one longitude line in all countries is considered as the authentic time of the whole country. In this way, such time considered in all places in a country is called authentic or Capricorn time. In our country, 82 ° 30 ‘eastern longitude line is considered as Capricorn Midpoint. This mid-line local time is considered the standard time of the whole country. This is called Indian Standard Time (IST). The authentic time of India is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Local time is the time that is drawn at every longitude according to the Sun. When the sun shines vertically at that longitude, it is considered at 12 noon. This is called local time, it varies by a difference of 4 minutes each longitude.
The time of the eastern longitude line of 82 (1/2) ° in India is considered the standard time, which passes through Naini near Allahabad.
Standard time of India, Greenwich is 5 (1/2) ° hours ahead of mean time.


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