Types of Irrigation System

Types of Irrigation System in India

Types of Irrigation System in India

Types of Irrigation System in India

Irrigation is a technique used to supplement the rainwater of dry land.

Agriculture is its main goal. As you know that India is a large country, so different types of irrigation systems are used in every different part of India i.e. states and regions. Irrigation of different regions of the country is done through different means, such as wells, reservoirs, canals, drains etc.

Our India is a country which is so dependent on agriculture. Our country is called the country of the villages and the income and livelihood of the people living in rural areas is agriculture, so we can say that irrigation is the backbone of our India, because without irrigation, agriculture is possible. . No, not at all.

India is a country full of diversities where each state, region, region has different geographical location and climate. Our country has about 185 million hectares of arable land and around 17.2 million hectares are cultivated.

Farming is the source of income of more than 50% of the people in India. Farming has always been the main enterprise of our country. The Farming or agriculture is directly dependent on rains, but it is very difficult to estimate the rainfall accurately, so the farmer cannot depend on only and only rain water.

Irrigation here is mainly dependent on the ground water. We can say that India has almost the largest irrigation system in the world and thus China ranks second and America third in terms of statistics.

Types of Irrigation System

Reservoir water irrigation system

This system is quite useful in flat and rocky areas of our country, such as Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Maharashtra etc. There is a provision of more than four lakh large and more than 40 lakh small reservoir water irrigation systems in the country. The main reservoirs are small ones which have been built by the farmers by constructing dams on the springs.

Well water irrigation system

This system is very popular in the plain and coastal areas, it also costs less. Whenever needed, water can be extracted from the well as per convenience. This means evaporation is also reduced and there is no fear of excessive irrigation.

The number of wells in India is 12 million. More than 60% of the country’s area is irrigated by wells and Uttar Pradesh is the largest well irrigated area. From the year 1950 to the year 2000, the area irrigated by wells has increased more than 5 times. There are mainly two types of wells –

Open wells

They are less deep, but they have limited water availability, so they are suitable for small areas.

Tube Well

These sources of irrigation are quite deep and are also favorable for farming. The best thing is that they have 12 months of water. For this reason, the number of tubewells has increased in recent years.

Inundation canal irrigation system

Canals play an important role in this system, about 40% of India’s area is irrigated by the Nehru. In the rainy season, there is a lot of flood, then the same flood water is transported through canals to farming and agricultural land. Such canal areas are – West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa etc.

Perennial Canal Irrigation System: The water of these canals comes directly from rivers or river projects. Reservoirs are constructed with the help of dams to supply water throughout the year. The biggest advantage of this system is that water can be available for irrigation through this system in all seasons. The state where these systems are mainly used is Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka.

Multipurpose river valley projects

These projects are also the subject of much discussion. Over the years, these river valley projects have helped in the growth and development of irrigation and farming.

India is a country with a large population and more and more food is required to feed millions of people. Therefore, irrigation system is very important for all of them, apart from this there is a possibility of drought due to abnormal rainfall. It is also possible to solve problems through irrigation.


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