THE YAKAMA WAR-On October 5, 1855, at Toppenish Creek in present-day Yakima County, the Yakama Warriors and the U.S. The trouble began four months ago when Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens convened the first-ever council with the express purpose of opening up Aboriginal lands for settlement. When it came time to sign the Yakama Treaty, Kamiyakin, the chief of the tribe, at first refused, but later did so under threats and pressure.

Tribal leaders were not informed that until treaties were ratified, non-Indian miners and settlers were free to enter tribal lands designated as reservations. The gold seekers soon trespassed, and on occasion stole tribal horses and abused Indian women.

Three miners were killed in September 1855 after entering the land set aside as the Yakama Reservation, and when the U.S. Indian Subagent Andrew J. When Bolan came to investigate, he too was killed. In response, the US military sent troops. They were outnumbered and were forced to retreat in an engagement at Toppenish Creek, the first battle of what would become the Three Years’ War.

At the Union Gap in November 1855, more than 700 soldiers, including American troops and a contingent of Oregon and Washington volunteers, fought Yakama and other warriors, and this time the Indians were forced to flee.

In the spring of 1856, civilians and soldiers were ambushed and ambushed in Cascades and Setus Creek in Colombia. In September of that year, Governor Stevens convened a Second Wall Council with the hope of ending hostilities, but negotiations failed and he and his military escort had to fight their way to safety.

In May 1858, Yakama, Palouse, Spokane, and Coeur d’Alene warriors drove American troops near the eastern border of Washington Territory. It was his last major victory. In September, Army troops led by Colonel George Wright won decisive battles at Four Lakes and the Spokane Plains.

Wright then ordered the slaughter of about 800 Palouse horses and the destruction of food supplies used by the tribes. After Wright executed the Yakama and Palouse prisoners, tribal resistance collapsed. The Yakama Treaty was finally ratified by Congress in 1859, opening up eastern Washington to settlement.

Several factors have fueled scientific inquiry and achievement in Washington. Boeing and other technology pioneers recruit skilled engineers and support scientific and technical education. Work on the first nuclear weapons at Hanford in World War II similarly attracted a significant group of scientific genius, including William R. Wiley, in whose honor Richland dedicated the Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory in 1996. In recent years, Microsoft and other high-tech ventures have spawned a virtual science suburb around Puget Sound, while biomedical pioneers and Amazon have made claims on the southern shore of Seattle’s Lake Union.

Final Frontier

On October 10, 1805, Meriwether Lewis, William Clark and their Corps of Discovery became the first non-Indian Americans to enter future Washington state. The explorers then pushed westward, following the Snake and Columbia rivers into the Pacific Ocean.

Landing Gear

On October 8, 1921, Chief of the Army Staff and UW ROTC instructor Henry Kress Muhlenberg put down the first military airplane at Sand Point’s unpaved airstrip. Ten years later, on October 5, 1931, pilot Clyde Pangborn made an even more spectacular landing at Wenache, when he belly-landed his monoplane after completing the first nonstop flight over the Pacific. The week also marks the anniversary of the opening of Grant County Airport at Moses Lake on October 8, 1966.

A Mill Built Here

Port Townsend was settled in 1851 and named for the harbour, which in turn was named after a British general by Captain George Vancouver. With the exception of a few rowdy years of political conflict during the 1860s, the port was once the official entry point by sea into the Washington Territory. When an expected land boom failed in the 1890s, the town remained sluggish until Crown Zellerbach opened a paper mill there on 6 October 1928.





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