Sayyid dynasty (AD 1414-1451)

Rulers of India’s Delhi sultanate as successors of the Tughluq dynasty until displaced by the Afghan Lodis. This family claimed to be sayyids, or descendants of the Prophet Muhammad. The central authority of the Delhi sultanate had been fatally weakened by the invasion of the Turkic conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) and his capture of Delhi in 1398.
Tomb of Muhammad Shah

Khizr Khan

  • He is the founder of thee Sayyid dynasty, had collaborated with Timur and as a reward for services to the invader, he was given the governorship of Lahore and Multan.
  • Khizr Khan’s three successors, Mubarak Shah (AD 1421-33), Muhammad Shah (AD 1434-43) and Ala-ud-din Alam Shah (AD 1443-51), assumed the royal title of Sultan and ruled as sovereign rulers but all were incapable rulers.
  • During the thirty seven years of Sayyid dynasty, the Sultanate of Delhi remained in trouble due to external invasions, internal intrigue, chaos and confusion. These conditions provided an opportunity to Bahlol Lodi.
  • Shah Alam (or Alam), the last Sayyid Sultan had laid the foundation of the Lodi dynasty.
  • Yahja-bin-Ahmed-bin-Abdullad Sirhindi wrote the Tarikh-i-Mubarakshahi (history from Mahmud to Md Shah).
  • Khizr khan died of illness in AD 1421.

Mubarak Shah

1. He was the son of Khizr Khan who got Khutba read on his name and issued his own coins. He did not accept the suzerainty of any foreign power.

2. He was the ablest ruler of the dynasty. He subdued the rebellion at Bhatinda and Daob and the revolt by Khokhars Chief Jasrat.

3. He patronised Vahiya Bin Ahmad Sarhind, author of Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi.

Mubarak Shah was succeeded by two incompetent rulers, Muhammad Shah (AD 1434-1445) and Alauddin Alam Shah (AD 1445-1450). Most of the provincial kingdoms declared their independence. Hence, Alam Shah surrendered the throne and retired in an inglorious manner to Baduan. Finally Bahlol Lodhi captured the throne of Delhi with the support of Wazir Khan.


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