SHER SHAH SURI | THE AFGHANI RULER

Sher Shah Suri (AD 1540-1545)

  • He founded the second Afghan dynasty (first Lodi dynasty).
  • Sher Shah Suri original name was Farid. In AD 1522, Farid took service under Babur Khan Lohani (Governer of Bihar), the ruler in Bihar.
  • Shah was an Afghan who ruled Agra and Delhi.
  • Sher Shah was particularly perturbed by the activities of Raja Maldev of Marwar. Sher Shah got better of him in the Battle of Samuel in 1544.
  • Shah died in AD 1545 in an explosion during his conquest of Kalinjar fort.
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Sher Shah Suri

In the field of central administration, Sher Shah followed the Sultanate pattern. There were four main central departments which were as follows.

  1. Diwan-i-Wijarat This department was related with financial matters.
  2. Diwan-i-Ariz Headed by Ariz-i-mumalik. It was a military department.
  3. Diwan-i-Insha Working as a secretariat.
  4. Diwan-i-Rasalat Headed by a Sardar. This department dealt with foreign affairs matter. Diwan-i-Kaza headed by a Qazi. The Qazi looked after the judicial administration.

There was two important officials at the Sarkar level.

a. Shiqdari-i-Shiqadaran to maintain law and order.

b. Munshif-i-Munshifan to supervise the revenue collections.

  • Sher Shah is known for the creation of the Grand Trunk Road, that stretched from the river Indus in the west to Sonargaon in Bengal (from Calcutta to Peshawar).
  • He also improved the communications within his empire.
  • Sarais (rest house) were built on roads. Markets were developed around these and some of them were even used for new services as Dak-Chowki.
  • Introduced coins of unalloyed gold, silver and copper of fixed standards. The silver ‘Rupaya‘ and the copper ‘Dam‘ were also available.
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Tomb of Sher Shah Suri
  • Trade and commerce flourished –His currency reforms and land revenue system are also noteworthy. He fixed standard of weights and measures.
  • He built a tomb at Sasaram (Bihar) for himself which is a masterpiece of architecture.
  • Shah built a new city on the bank of the Yamuna river (present day Purana Qila).
  • Malik Muhammad Jaisi composed the Padmavat in Hindi during his reign.
  • Abbas Khan Sarwani was the Historian in the court of Sher Shah (wrote the Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi).

SHER SHAH SURI

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