Shahjahan (AD 1628-1658)
- Shahjahan succeeded in controlling the Deccan but his North-West policy was a failure.
- He was the third son of Jahangir, ascended the throne in AD 1628 and married Mumtaz in AD 1612.
- He was an able general and administrator. In the first year of his reign, Shahjahan had to overcome the revolts of the Bundela chief, Juzhar Singh and the Afghan noble named Khanjahan Lodi, an ex-viceroy of the Deccan.
- Shah Jahan’s reign of 30 years is regarded as the Golden age of Mughal in art and architecture during which monuments like the famous Taj Mahal at Agra, in the memory of his wife Mumtaz, the Red Fort at Delhi with its Diwan-i-Khas and Diwan-i-Aam, the Jama Masjid and the famous Jewel-studded peacock throne were built among other numerous pieces of architecture.
- Many foreign travellers visited India during the reign of Shah Jahan. Two Frenchman Bernier and Travenier and an Italian adventurer Manucci the author of the Storio Dor Magor are specially noteworthy.
- The introduced scale of 1/3, 1/4 and 1/5 in Mansabdari system.
Shah Jahan – Mumtaz’s immortal love story
In the year 1612, Khurram alias Shah Jahan was married to Arjumand Banu Begum (Mumtaz Mahal), daughter of Asaf Khan, who was conferred the title of “Malika-e-Zamani” by Shah Jahan. Apart from these, Shah Jahan also had many other wives.
But Mumtaz Begum was his dearest wife and a very beautiful wife. Shah Jahan, impressed by her beauty, changed her name from Arjumand Banu Begum to Mumtaz, which means – the most precious Nagina of the palace.
It is said that Shah Jahan loved Mumtaz so much that he could not stay away from her at all, and took her along on every visit, not only that he would do all the work of his kingdom with his advice. Were. At the same time, according to many historians, without the seal of Mumtaz, he did not issue the royal decree.
At the same time, in 1631, just 3 years after the crowning of Emperor Shah Jahan, Mumtaz had died due to liver pains while giving birth to his 14th child, Shah Jahan was very upset due to the death of his beloved Begum.
It is also said that after the death of Mumtaz, the emperor had been mourning for about 2 years. During this time, the emperor of the colourful mood had abandoned all his passions, neither did he wear the royal veneer nor did he attend the royal prom.
According to historians, out of the 14 children of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal, only 7 survived, of which 4 were sons and 3 daughters. At the same time, Shahjahan’s four sons Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb, Murad Bakhsh, did not get along at all, because they all wanted to sit on the Mughal throne, the successor fight between the four started in the year 1657 itself.
However, Shah Jahan wanted his son Dara Shikoh to sit on the Mughal throne after him because he was the most intelligent, educated, cultured, sensible and kind-hearted among the four sons, but Aurangzeb, to the extent of seeking his father’s power It fell that he took his father Shah Jahan as a hostage.
According to historians, in 1658, the cruel son Aurangzeb imprisoned Shah Jahan in Agra Fort. For nearly 8 years, Shah Jahan spent this fort as a prisoner in Shahburj, although at this time Shah Jahan’s elder daughter Jahanara lived and served him.
From 31 January 1666, the great Mughal emperor Shah Jahan said goodbye to this world. After which, Shah Jahan’s body was buried near the tomb of his Begum Mumtaz Mahal in the Taj Mahal and after his death, his son Aurangzeb was deceitfully seated on the throne of the Mughal throne.
In this way, the great ruler of the Mughal Empire, Shah Jahan, came to an end, but even today, Shah Jahan is remembered for making Taj Mahal one of the seven wonders of the world and he and Mumtaz’s love affair are exemplified.