Physical properties of matter can be observed and tested. They include properties such as color, length, volume, odor, and density. These properties are extensive if they depend on the amount of the substance being used or intensive if they do not depend on the amount of substance being used.



Elasticity is the property of material of a body by virtue of which the body acquires its original shape and size after the removal of deforming force.Steel is more elastic than rubber.
The internal restoring force acting per unit area of cross section of a deformed body is called stess.
The fractional change in configuration i.e., length,volume and shape is called strain.


Pressure is defined as force acting normally on unit area of the surface.
Pressure = Force/Area
Atmospheric pressure = 1.01 bar = 1.01✕105N/m2
Atmospheric pressure is measured by barometer.
Atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude (height from earth’s surface). This is why

1.It is difficult to cook on the mountain.
2.The fountain pen of a passenger leaks in aeroplane at height.

The pressure exerted by liquid a depth h below the surface of liquid is given as

p = hdg, where d is density of liquid.
Pressure at a point in a static liquid has same value in all direction.
Pressure at a point in a liquid is proportional to the density of the liquid.
Pressure at a point in a liquid is proportional to the depth of the point from the free surface.
Boiling point of all substances increases with the increase in pressure.


When a body is immersed partially or wholly in a liquid, a force acts on the body by the liquid in the upward direction.
This force is called buoyant force of buoyant of upthrust.
It is equal to the weight of liquid displaced by the body and acts at the centre of gravity of displaced liquid.


When a solid body is immersed wholly or partially in a liquid (in general,in a fluid), then there is some apparent loss in its weight.This loss in weight is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body.


When body floats in neutral equilibrium,the weight of the body is equal to the weight of displaced liquid.
The centre of gravity of the body and centre of gravity of the displaced liquid should be in one vertical line.
⇒The centre of gravity of a body is that point at which the whole weight of the body appears to act.


Density is defined as mass per unit volume.
Density = Mass /Volume
Its SI unit is Kg/m3.
Relative density = Density of material / Density of water at 40C
Relative density is measured by hydrometer.
The density of sea water is more than of normal water.This explains why it is easier to swim in sea water.
If ice floating in water in a vessel melts, the level of water in the vessel does not change.
The density of water is maximum at temperature 40C.


Surface tension of a liquid is measured by the normal force acting per unit length on either side of an imaginary line drawn on the free surface of liquid and tangential to the free surface.
If a force F acts on an imaginary line of length l,then surface tension T = F/l
Its SI unit is Newton/metre.
The surface tension of a liquid decrease with increase in temperature.
⇒Force of attraction applied between molecules of same substance is called cohesive force while attractive between molecules of different substances is called adhesive force.


The angle inside the liquid between the tangent to the solid surface and the tangent to the liquid surface at the point of contact is called the angle of contact for that pair of solid and liquid.
The angle of contact for pure water and clean glass is zero.For ordinary water and glass it is about 8C.
The liquid which do not wet the solid have obtuse angle of contact as for mercury and glass the angle of contact is 135C.
The angle of contact for water and silver is 90C.


If a capillary tube is dipped in a liquid, liquid ascends of descends in the capillary tube.This phenomenon is called capillarity.The oil in the wick of a lamp rises due to capillary action of threads in the wick.The root hairs of plants draws water from the soil through capillary action.
To prevent loss of water due to capillary action, the soil is loosened and split into pieces by the farmers.


Viscosity is the property of a liquid by virtue of which it opposes the relative motion between its different layers.
Viscosity is the property of liquids and gases both.
With rise in temperature, viscosity of liquids decreases and that for gases increase.


When an in compressible and non-viscous liquid (or gas) flows in streamlined motion from one place to another,then at every point of its path the total energy per unit volume (pressure energy + kinetic energy+ pressure energy) is constant.Venturimeter a device used to measure rate of flow of fluid, works on Bernoulli’s theorem.


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