The President has vast powers and functions.However,these powers and functions are actually exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers.
All executive actions of the Government of India are formally taken in his name.
He appoints the Prime Minister, and the other Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister.
He can appoint a commission to investigate into the conditions of the SCs, the STs and OBCs.
He can appoint an inter-state council to promote centre-state and inter-state co-operation.
He directly administers the union territories through administrators appointed by him.
He can seek any information relating to the administration of affairs of the Union,and proposals for legislation from the Prime Minister (Article 78).
Article 79 says that the President is an integral part of the Parliament of India.In this capacity,he enjoys the following legislative powers.
- He can summon or prorogue the Parliament and dissolve the Lok Sabha. He can also summon joint sitting of both the Houses of Parliament.
- He can address the Parliament at the commencement of the first session after each general election and the first session of each year.
- He nominates 12 members to Rajya Sabha and 2 members to the Lok Sabha from the Anglo-Indian Community.
- President’s prior recommendation is needed to introduce certain types of bills,i.e., a bill involving expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India,a bill for the alteration of boundaries of the states or creation of new states.
- Each bill passed in Parliament is sent to the President,He can give his assent to the bill or withhold his assent to the same or return it for reconsideration of the Parliament.The President has the option of veto with respect to the bills passed by the Parliament. Vetos are absolute,suspensive and pocket vetos (Article 111).
- Under Article 123,the President can promulgate ordinances when both the Houses of Parliament are not in session.The ordinance can be effective for a maximum period of 6 months and 6 weeks, in case non-approval by the Parliament.
- He lays of the reports of CAG,UPSC, Finance Commission and others before the Parliament.
Money bill can be introduced in the Parliament only with prior recommendation of the President.
Under Article 112, he causes to be laid before the Parliament,the Annual Financial Statement.
He constitutes Finance Commission after every five year to recommend the distribution of the taxes between the center and the states.
The President appoints Chief Justice and the Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts.
Under Article 143,the President can seek advice from the Supreme Court on any question of lower fact.
He can grant pradon, reprieve,respite and remission of punishment,or suspend,remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence.
All kinds of international treaties and agreements are concluded on the behalf of President.
He represents India international forum and affairs and sends and receives diplomats like ambassadors,high commissioners,etc.
The President is the Supreme commander of the defense forces/arms forces of India.
The President appoints Chief’s of Army,Navy,Air Force.
The President can declare war’s and conclude peace.
The Constitution of India confers extraordinary powers on the President to deal with the Three type of emergencies-National Emergency (Article 352), President’s Rule (Article 356 and 365) and Financial Emergency (Article 360).