Plants and Human Body- Reproductive System

Reproduction is the process of the emergence of new individuals of the same caste from existing organisms.

Type of reproduction

Genetic reproduction occurs mainly through two methods:

Asexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
In asexual reproduction, a child is born from a single parent. Asexual reproduction is found in unicellular organisms, some plants and multicellular animals, such as sponges, hydra, etc.
Sexual reproduction requires the participation of two different sex organisms – one male and one female.

Different methods of asexual reproduction

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Asexual Reproduction

Fission: A unicellular organism, such as amoebae, parametium and other protozoan members breed in this method. In this method the parent organism divides into two progenitor cells and then grows into each of these adult organisms, this is called Binary fission. Sometimes division of the nucleus creates multiple progeny nuclei, and a small segment of cytoplasm forms a membrane around each progenitor. This is called multiple fission, eg- malarial parasite, amoeba and others.

 

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Budding: Example- In unicellular organisms, Yeast and multicellular organisms like Hydra have a small bulge from adult body, it is called bud. This parent separates from the body and forms a new body. This method is called Budding.

Spore formation

Asexual reproduction is the common method in most fungi and bacteria. In spore germination a structure is formed from the fungal filaments. Which is called Sporangium. In spores, the nucleus and cytoplasmic division create a number of spores that break free and form new fungal fibers, eg Rhizopus, Mucor, Penicillium.

Regeneration

The ability of an organism to obtain a complete organism from fragmented body parts is called regeneration or regeneration, eg- if the Hydra is cut into several pieces, from each fragment, the organism will become a body. Other examples are Spirogyra, algae, plenaria, sponges.

It is found in higher class plants. Slaughter of the plant like- root, stem, leaf grows from the new plant, eg- buds above the root of guava, buds of the leaves of Byophylluni, other examples- onion, banana, garlic, hyacinth.

Layering

In applying pressure, a branch of the stem of the plant is pulled and pressed into the soil. This parent remains attached to the plant. After the root is submerged, it is separated from the parent plant, eg raspberry, strawberry, lemon, guava, bogenwellia, jasmine, mogra.

Grafting

In this, two parts of different plants are joined together in such a way that they grow together into a single plant, the part which appears on top of another plant is called a scion and the plant But a pen is tied and it is called a stock. Cambium of both plants should come in contact with each other. For example, lemon on orange, lemon, grape, rose etc.

Micro amplification

The origin of a plant by cells and tissues in a synthesized medium is called micro amplification. Medium (Medium) is important in this method because it contains nutrients and hormones required for growth. A cell or tissue is transferred to sterile conditions in an appropriate artificial medium. Tissue develops into cellular masses with rapid growth, called callus. Callus is transferred to another medium for growth and differentiation, forming small plants. These plants are planted in soil or pot where they grow to maturity.

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Tissue culture techniques are used to produce fine plants such as orchid (asparagus), dahlias and kernations.

Parthenogenesis

It is the action of the growth of an organism from an undesired egg. These types of flowers do not contain seeds.

Sexual Reproduction

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Sexual Reproduction
  • Sexual reproduction requires two opposite sexes, male and female.
  • The organisms that have separate male and female reproductive organs are called unisexual.
  • Such organisms, in which male and female reproductive organs are found in the same organism, are called bisexual or hermaphrodite, eg- laceworm, earthworm, starfish.
  • Gonads are the primary sexual organs. Janads form gamety by meiosis.
  • The testis is the male genus that produces sperm.
  • The ovary is the female gonad, which produces eggs or ovaries.
  • Sexual reproduction begins with the incorporation of two different gametes, which are called fertilisation. In this, after fertilization of the sperm male gametes and the egg female gametes, the zygote forms a zygote that develops into a new organism.
  • In invertebrate fishes and amphibians, fertilization usually takes place outside the body, this is called external fertilization.
  • Internal fertilization is found in reptiles, birds and mammals (including humans).
  • In such a state, the male gametes (sperm) from the testes are transferred to the female body, where fertilization is complete.
  • This transfer occurs during the climax of confluence or copulation.
  • The structures associated with the confluence are called Maithunang or accessory sex organ.
  • Sexual reproduction promotes the diversity of traits in offspring because it involves the fusion of two different and gametes from organisms with gender disparities.

Sexual reproduction in plants

  • Most plants are hermaphroditic, with male and female genitals found in the same plants. The fertile part of plants is a flower. There are different parts of the flower – Sepals, Dal (Petals – Petals), Stamen, Carpel.
  • The sepals are usually green and the petals are colorful and beautiful.
  • Stamens and carpels are the reproductive part. Each stamens have a stalk, called a filament, and a flat head called an anther. Pollen grains have their origin in the anther. Two male gametes are formed from each pollinator.
  • There are three major parts of the carpel – the puffed part of the ovary at the bottom is the flat side of the ovary, the stigma and the long style in the middle. Ovaries are ovules.
  • Each ovule has an egg which is a female gametes.
  • The fusion of male and female gametes in the plant occurs when pollinators are transferred from the same flower or other flower.
  • Pollination – The transfer of pollen from pollen to stigma is called pollination. There are many means of transferring pollen like air, water insect etc.

Pollination is of two types:

Self poIIination: The transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower to the stems of the same flower or other flower of that plant is called self-pollen.

Cross pollination: The transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower to the stigma of flowers of other plants of the same species is called cross-pollination.

Fertilisationin Plant

Fertilization occurs after pollination in plants. When pollen is collected in the vestigia, it germinates, one of the tubes that enters the vortex is called the pollen tube. This tube passes through the style, reaching the ovaries, where the ovule is located. The pollen tube enters the ovule through a micro-hole called the micropyle. Inside the ovule, two pollengrains enter the embryo from the anther. Eggs remain in the embryo. A masculine is fused with the egg. This fusion of male and female gametes is called Syngamy and it forms zygotes.

The other masseter is fused to two polar centers. This action is called Triple fission, because this fusion process has three nuclei, one masculine and two polar nuclei. This creates embryos which provide food (nutrition) to the seeds until germination.
Two fusion in each embryo; The process of gametes fusion and trivialisation is called double fertilization. After fertilization, ovaries develop into fruits and ovules.

 

Plants and Human Body- Reproductive System | Plants and Human Body- Reproductive System

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