Maukhari Dynasty – Ancient History
Moukhari and North Gupt
Maukhari and Uttaragupta are notable among those who gained independence after the fall of the Gupta Empire. Both dynasties have the same period of independence. The history of both starts around a time, both were feudatories of the Guptas till about 550 AD.
Historical Sources – We get a sense of orality from both archival and literary sources. The main article of this dynasty is of Haraha, which is in Barabanki district of Uttar Pradesh. This v.s. 6112 (554 AD) which was engraved by Suryavarma, son of Ishanavarma. This inscription depicts the achievements of the Maukhari rulers. The second article is from Jaunpur, which describes the Maukhari rulers. The language of the Jaunpur inscription is Sanskrit. It lacks date. Other notable inscriptions of the Maukharis are the writings of Devvarnak, Nagarjuni and Barabari of Asirgarh, Nalanda, Afsadh (situated in the Gaya district of Bihar). Some oral articles have also been obtained from Barwa (Kota).
The records of other erstwhile dynasties also throw light on the history of the Maukharis. In the last decades, many records (such as Samoli-inscription of Sharvavarma, Sanjeli Donation of Torman, Replacement Records of Prakash Dharma Aulikar, etc.) have also helped to know the history of the Maukharis. Many currencies of the Maukharis are derived from Bhitora (Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh).
From the artistic point of view, the coins of Moukharis are very simple. A gold coin, 8 copper coins and 522 silver coins were found in a vessel from Bhitora village. Among them are the coins of Maukhari Naresh Ishanavarma, Sharvavarma and Avantivarma etc. The dates are inscribed on these but very obscure. The writing is also not good. This is the reason that historians do not consider the creation of the history of the Moukharis on the basis of mere coins. Literary evidence concerning oral history is more abundant. The source of literary information of the Moukharis is Harshcharit and Manjushrimukalp. Although there is a delightful seventh-century book, but it mentions the Maukhari rulers. This sheds light on oral political relations.
Maukhari ruler- The founder of the Maukhari dynasty was Harivarma. Its date is not available, yet it can be inferred that he must have ruled around 500 AD. He was a powerful ruler, holding the title of Maharaj. The seal of Asirgarh states that its fame was spread across the four seas. In this, the name of Harivarma’s wife is Jayaswamini. Harivarma has been told to maintain the Varnashrama system similar to Chakradhar. With his power and sympathy, he had controlled many kings. He was about to remove the grief of the people. This is also confirmed by the records of Haraha. It says that he suppressed the enemies for the prosperity of the earth and his fame spread all around. Enemies were afraid to see his red face in battle. He became famous all over the world by the name Jwalamukh. Harivarma’s successor was Adityavarma. In the Haraha inscription, the yagyas performed by Adityavarma have been praised. It is said to be similar to the moon emanating from the sea.
Uttaragupta was a contemporary of King Harshagupta Adityavarma. His sister Harshagupta’s marriage to Adityavarma proves that the Uttaragupta and Maukhari dynasty had good relations during Adityavarma’s time. Adityavarma’s successor was Ishwarvarma. The ruler whose achievements are described in the Jaunpur inscription is Adityavarma. Both Adityavarma and Ishvaravarma held the title of Maharaj. This reflects the imperialist spirit of the Moukharis. Ishwarvarma originated from Harshagupta, in the Haraha inscription he is called the suzerainty. Like his ancestors, Ishwarvarma was also a Brahmin dharmavalambi, he also performed many yagyas. Many historians relate the successes mentioned in the Jaunpur inscription to Ishwarvarma. He fought many wars during his reign. During the reign of Ishwarvarma, the Maukharis fought with the Andhra.
Ishanavarma – Ishanavarma assumed the title of Maharajadhiraja, from which it is clear that the power and prestige of this dynasty had increased. Ishwarvarma’s successor was Ishanavarma, he was born from the womb of Rani Bhattarika Devi Upagupta. Ishanavarma was the most powerful ruler of this dynasty. Its date in the Haraha inscription was 554 AD. It states that as a result of the ravages of Kalirupi Marut, he forced the earth-bound yacht going towards the abyss, by fastening its hundreds of properties, by binding it from all sides. Ishanavarma revived the reputation of the Maukharis. The enemies of Andhra, Shulik, Gaud Maukharis have been described. Whom Ishanavarma defeated. The Haraha inscription states that he had authorized the throne by conquering Andhrapati who had thousands of elephants, defeating the Shulikas who had an army of innumerable horsemen and forcing the Gaudas to live in their own kingdom. Successes against the Andhras, Shulikas and Gaudas certainly increased the power and prestige of the Maukharis. Ishanavarma was also the king of religious instincts. According to the Haraha inscription, the three Vedas became aware again during his reign. He also tried to maintain the varnasrama system.
Ishanavarma also fought (for the first time) with the North Guptas. Ishanavarma was defeated in this. Later, Sravavarma avenged the defeat. Damodar Gupta was killed in this war. As a result of the war, Magadha came under the authority of the Maukharis. The kingdom of the Uttaragupta was limited only to Malwa. There is very little information about the history of the Moukharis after Ishanavarma. The Maukhari kings would have been quite powerful in the late sixth century CE. It is not clear from this itself that both these kings also held the titles of Maharajadhiraj.
Ishanavarma, the ruler of the Moukhari empire, was succeeded by his son Sharvavarma. According to many historians, there was a struggle for succession in Sharvavarma and Suryavarma. Independent coins and inscriptions of Suryavarma have not been received. It is clear from this that he did not rule as an independent ruler. Records and coins of Sravavarma have been received. But his date is controversial. In many inscriptions, the title is found next to his name. This is the first ruler with whom it is mentioned. Probably, Sravavarma fought the Huns and defeated them. In fact, both Shervavarma and his son Avantivarma were powerful kings. His empire had a wide area of expansion.
Avantivarma has been called Tilak of this dynasty in Harshacharita. The boundaries of Sharvavarma and Avantivarma matched the boundaries of present-day Uttar Pradesh. There were also parts of Magadha in it. There is some uncertainty about the successor of Avantivarma. It is clear from the description that after Avantivarma the eldest son Grahavarma became the ruler. It must have held the throne in 606 AD or earlier before marrying Rajyashree. The incident of marriage of Graha Varma and Rajyashree is a remarkable event in the history of the Moukharis. Baan has given a pictorial description of it in Harshacharit. The main reason for this marriage appears to be political. Due to which two important powers like Pushyabhuti and Maukhari became one.
Devagupta (ruler of Uttaragupta) along with Shashank, the ruler of Bengal, assassinated him in 606 AD. Later, Harshavardhana also took over the rule of Kanyakubj with Thaneshwar. As a result, the Maukhari dynasty came to an end as an imperial power.
The decline of the Gupta Empire began in the early sixth century AD. Many new powers emerged as a result. Along with Kannauj’s Maukharis, the Uttaragupta emerged in Magadha. The most important instrument in the history of this dynasty is the inscription of Afsad. In the absence of this record, our knowledge about the North Guptas would have remained incomplete. It provides an interesting account of the events of the period of the first Uttaragupta Naresh Adityasena. A series of Uttaragupta rulers are found in this article. Krishnagupta, Harshagupta, Jivitragupta I, Kumaragupta, Damodaragupta, Mahasengupta, Madhavagupta and Adityasen. Apart from the article of Afsad, many records have also been received. Shahpur’s article, Bhangrao’s article, Devvanark’s article, etc. The article of the temple of Vaidyanath Dham is also notable, in which Adityasen has been called the ruler of the earth after the sea. In this, he is described as the editor of Ashwamedh Yagya.
The secret behind the names of these rulers creates the illusion that they were not related to the Gupta dynasty. But his dynasty was separate from the Guptas. The feudatories of the Guptas were their early rulers. Krishnagupta, Harshagupta and the surviving Gupta first were feudatories of the Guptas from about 500 AD to 550 AD. In ancient India, the dynasty tradition of rulers was referred to. If they were related to the Guptas, then it would definitely be mentioned in their records. The style of inscriptions was also different from the Gupta periodic records. It is reasonable to assume that these rulers were separate from the Guptas. This dynasty ruled the mighty kingdom of Magadha for nearly a century.
Krishnagupta – The history of the Uttaragupta dynasty begins from the time of Krishnagupta. It has been praised a lot in the epigraph of Afshad. Its title has been called Nripe. Such titles also assumed feudalism. Krishnagupta was a contemporary of Maukhari Naresh Harivarma. Yashodharman was probably defeated by Krishnagupta.
Harshagupta – It was the successor of Krishnagupta, about which an exaggerated description is available in the article of Afsadha. He was called the conqueror of the wars, with the sign of the stroke of arms on his chest. Harshagupta was under Narasimhagupta, he may have fought wars under Narasimhagupta. Harshagupta married his sister Harshagupta with Adityavarma of the Maukhari dynasty. Harshagupta ruled from about 505 AD to 525 AD.
Jivitagupta I – Jivitagupta was the ruler from about 525 AD to 545 AD. In the article of Afsad, titles like Kishish Chudamani, Nripe etc. are found for Jeevagupta. He also married his sister Upagupta to Maukhari Naresh Ishwarvarma. By this time, the relations between the Maukharis and the Uttaragupta were certainly cordial.
Kumaragupta – The fourth ruler of Uttaragupta was Kumaragupta. By this time, Uttaragupta was completely free from the subjugation of the Guptas. On the other hand, the Maukharis also attained independence under the leadership of Ishanavarma. Both Kumaragupta and Ishanvarma were imperialist rulers. The conflict between the two’s ambitions was natural. According to the article in Afsad, there was a war between the two in which Ishanavarma was defeated.
Damodaragupta – It was the successor of Kumaragupta. In the letter of Afsad, it has been called the destroyer of enemies. Damodargupta fought with the Maukhari King Sharvavarma and was killed in this war.
Mahasengupta- Mahasengupta was the successor of Damodaragupta. It has been praised in the letter of Afsadh. The Maukharis had wrested Magadha from its father and its kingdom remained confined to Malav only.
Madhavagupta – He was the successor of Mahasengupta. According to the article of Harshacharita and Afsadha, Madhavgupta was a close friend of Harsha.
Adityasen – The main source of information about this article. It was the successor of Madhavagupta. He is called Parambhagavata in the article of Devavarnak.
Devagupta – The successor from Adityasena was Devagupta. It is different from Devgupta of Harshacharit. He assumed the title of Parambhattaraka and Maharajadhiraja. The use of Parammaheshwara is also found for him.
Vishnugupta – This was the son of Devagupta. According to Bhagrao’s article, he built many Shiva temples. Its reign was from about 695 AD to 715 AD.
Jivagupta II – This was the last king of the Uttaragupta dynasty. Devvarnak’s article was produced during this time.
The area south of the Narmada River is called Dakshina Path or South India. In common parlance, Dakshinapatha is taken from the whole of South India but in a specific sense from Dakshinapatha is taken from Maharashtra, Kannada Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. Pro. According to Amalanand Ghosh; The story of Rama in the Dakshina Path described in the Ramayana concurrently presents a historical background that is indicative of the political expansion of the Aayas in that region. According to another tradition of the epic, Maharishi Agastya was the first sage who spread the light of Vindhyagiri hill region and Arya religion and culture and established a colony. After the fall of the Gupta dynasty, the process of decentralization also strengthened in South India. As a result, many dynasties were established. Among them, the Chalukya dynasty of Vatapi (Badami) was very influential.
Maukhari Dynasty | Maukhari Dynasty