Literature During the Mughal Period
The Timurid king of India was a fountain of literature and greatly encouraged the development of its various branches. Akbar had many scholars under his patronage and wrote interesting and important books. Madhvacharya, a contemporary of Akbar, a Bengali poet of Triveni and author of Chadi-Mangal, praises the emperor as a nourisher of learning.
We can divide the Persian literature of Akbar’s reign into three parts –
- Historical books,
- Translation and
- Poetry and poetry.
The major historical books of that reign are – Tithi-Alfi of Mulla Dawood, Ain-Akbari and Akbarnama of Abulafzal, Mukhtakhabut-Tabarikh of Badayunin, Tabakate-Akbari of Nizamuddin Ahmad, Akbarnama of Faizi-Sirhindi and Masire-Rahimi of Abdul Waki who Abdurrahim Compiled under the patronage of food and food. The most able writer (in Persian) of that reign was Abul Fazl, a scholar, poet, essayist, critic and historian. Many books in Sanskrit and other languages were translated into Persian with the permission of the emperor. Many Muslim scholars translated various parts of Mahabharata into Persian and they were compiled in the name of Rajmanama. After working hard for four years, Badayuni completed the translation of the Ramayana in 1589 AD. In Persian, Haji Ibrahim Sirhindi translated the Atharvaveda, Faizi wrote a mathematics book of Lilavati, Mukammal Khan Gujarati wrote a book of Jyotish scripture, Tajak, Aburrahim Khan-Khanan translated Wakiyate-Babri and Maulana Shah Muhammad Shahabadi translated the history of Kashmir. did. Some Greek and Arabic books were also translated into Persian. Some poets or poetry writers wrote good books under Akbar’s patronage. The most famous among those who wrote the verse was Gijali. After that came the place of Faul, brother of Abul Fazal. Abul Fazl translated the Panchatantra by the name of Anwar-e-Sahili. Faizi adapted the story of Nal Damayanti into Persian. Other famous poets were Muhammed Hussain Naziri of Nishapur, who wrote very good ghazals and Syed Jamaluddin Urfi of Sheeraj, who was a noted author of the Qasid in his time.
Jahangir had a good literary interest. He also nurtured scholars. In terms of content and style, his autobiography has a place after Babur’s autobiography. Among the scholars who adorned his court, a detailed list of which is in Iqbalanamay-Jahangiri, here we can mention the names of Ragias Baig, Nakib Khan, Mutamid Khan Niamatullah and Abdul Haq Dihalvi. Some historical books were written during the reign of Jahangir, of which Masire-Jahangiri, Iqbal-Naamae-Jahangiri and Jabdut-Tawarikh are the most important. Shah Jahan followed his predecessors in nurturing scholars. In addition to many poets and theologians in his court, there were some famous historians, including Abdul Hameed Lahori, the author of Padshahnama, Aminai Qazvini, the author of another Padshahnama, Inayat Khan, the author of Shah Jahannama, and Muhammad Salih, the author of Amale-Salih. is. All these are important tools in the history of Shah Jahan’s reign. The scholarly books of Shahzada Darashikoh, which have been mentioned earlier, are the pride books of Persian literature. Aurangzeb was an ardent Sunni and a critical scholar of Muslim theology and jurisprudence. He had no interest in poetry. He was against writing history for his reign. For this reason, Khanti Khan’s Muntakhabullabub had to be written in secret. Yet there are some famous books of this type, such as the Alamgirnama of Mirza Muhammad Kazim, Muassire-Alamgiri of Muhammad Saqi, Khulat-ut-Tawarikh of Sujan Rai Khatri, Nushk-e-Dilkusha of Bhimsen and Fatuhat-e-Alamgiri of Ishwar Das .
Peace and order was established by Akbar. At the same time, a group of saint preachers was propagating the liberal ideas of the religious movements of that era in the language understood by the people. Encouraged by these things, the talent of the public became multifaceted. As a result, the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries became the golden age of Hindustani literature. The first notable writer after 1526 AD was Malik Muhamad Jayasi. He wrote the best philosophical epic named Padmavat in 1540 AD, in which the story of Padmini, the queen of Mewar, is tied in metaphor. Akbar was very much interested in Hindi poetry and he cherished it. This gave a lot of encouragement to Hindi literature. Among the Emperor’s court Birbal, whom he had given the title of poet, was a famous poet. Raja Mansingh also used to write poetry in Hindi and was a nurturer of learning. The most famous of Akbar’s ministers was Abdurrahim Khan-Khanan, whose couplets are still read with interest and admiration throughout North India. Narhari, who was given the title of Mahapatra by the Emperor, Harinath and Gaj were also notable writers of his court.
Most of the poetic literature at that time was religious and used to explain Krishnapuja or Rambhakti. Many writers of Krishnapuja happened in Brajbhoomi, which is largely the Yamuna valley. It developed amazingly there. Ballabhacharya and his son Bithalnath had eight disciples, whose combined name was Ashtachap. The most notable among them was the blind eye poet of Surdas. He used to write in Braj Bhasha. He described the sports of Krishna’s early life in his sun and wrote many verses on the beauty of Krishna and his beloved Radha. Other important poets of this ideology were Nandadas, the author of the Ras-Panchadhyayi, Bitthalnath, Paramanandadas, Kumbhandas, author of the talks of the prose Gaya Chaurasi Vaishnavas, and Raskhanan (a Muslim disciple of Bitthalnath), author of Premavartika. The most famous of the authors of Rambhakti was Tulsidas (1532–1623 AD), who lived in Benares. In Yashomandir, he sits alone in his place, out of reach. He was not only a poet of the highest order, but also a spiritual teacher of the people of India. His name is taken from house to house here and millions of human beings keep repeating the lines of Shri Ramcharit Manas, who cherish their memory in their psyche. His most famous work is Ramcharitmanas, which Sir George Grierson has aptly told the only Bible of crores of people of India. Grouse also says in his translation of Tulsidas’s Ramayana that his book is in the hands of every person from the palace to the hut and what is high, low, rich, rich, young, old, every class of Hindu caste reads it, Listens and praises it.
In this era, the first attempts to serialize poetry were also made. Keshavdas (died 1617 AD) was a well-known poet of the time of Jahangir. Jahangir’s brother Daniel was a good Hindi poet. Sundar Kavirai, Matiram, Bihari and Kavindra Acharya are famous poets of Shah Jahan. Who made commendable contribution in the growth of Ritikalin Hindi literature. Other famous poets of Shah Jahan’s court were Harinath, Shiromani Mishra and Vedangarai.
This era in Bengal was famous for the amazing development of Vaishnava literature. Its various branches – such as Kacha Padas, Geet and Biographies of Chaitanyadeva – not only filled the mind of the people of Bengal with feelings of love and generosity, but also as a mirror of the social life of this region in that era. Have remained. The most prominent Vaishnava writer was Krishnadasa Kaviraja (born in 1517 AD in a Vaidya family of Jhamalpur, Burdwan), the author of the most important biography of Chaitanya named Chaitanya Charitamrita; Vrindavan Das (born in 1507 AD), author of Chaitanya Bhagavata, whose book is a repository of knowledge in relation to the Bengali society of his time, besides being an excellent book on the life of Chaitanya Dev; Jayananda, the author of Chaitanyamangala (born in 1513 AD), whose book is an autobiographical treatise and tells some new things about the life of Chaitanyadeva; Trilochan Das (born 1523 AD in a village named Kovagram, thirty miles north of Burdwan), the author of a very popular biography of Chaitanya Deva, also named Chaitanyamangala, and the author of Bhakti Ratnakar Narhari Chakravarti, whose book was written in fifteen passages of Chaitanyadeva It is a detailed biography and in terms of importance it is believed to have come only after the creation of Krishnadas Kaviraj. There were many translations of epics and Bhagwat in this era and books were written in praise of Chandi Devi and Mansa Devi. The most important of these texts were the Mahabharata of Kashiram Das and the Kavikkan-Chandi of Mukundaram Chakravarti, whose popularity is still the same in Bengal, as did Tulsidas’s famous book in Upper India. Mukundaram’s book has a clear picture of the social and economic condition of the people of Bengal of his time. It is for this reason that Professor Cowell has described her as a Crab of Bengal and in Dr. Grierson’s view, her poetry originates from the heart, not from the school (any particular ideology) but is filled with references embellished with true poetry and descriptive power.
Due to the book-love of the emperors, libraries were established, in which countless valuable handwritten texts were filled. Akbar’s library had a large collection and the books were properly classified according to different subjects.
The art of beautiful writing was in a state of perfection. Among the famous authors of Akbar’s court, a list of which is in Ain-Akbari, the most prominent was Muhammad Hussain of Kashmir, who received the title of Zarinkalam.
During Aurangzeb’s reign, the development of Hindi literature was blocked due to the removal of the preservation. Not much Urdu poetry was written in Northern India in this era. But there were some famous writers of Urdu poetry in Deccan.
Even in the turbulent days of the later Mughal rule, literary work did not come to a standstill. Kings like Bahadur Shah and Muhammad Shah, Subedars like Murshid Quli Jafar Khan and Alivardi Khan, Raja Krishnchandra of Nadia and Asadulla of Virbhum and some other zamindars nurtured scholars. Except for the hymns of Ramprasad, the literature of this era was often of trivial sentiments and corrupted tendencies. In this era, female education was not unknown in both Hindus and Muslims. Two daughters were sent to the school of John Muhammad, who was converted to Hinduism, and he gained some expertise in learning. Koki Jiu was far from his brothers in handwriting and composition. We find many examples of educated women in Bengal. Exemplar: The wives of King Navakrishna of Shobhabazar in Calcutta were noted for their reading ability and interest and Anandibayi of East Bengal was a poet of considerable fame.
Along with Hindi, Urdu also developed in the medieval era. Urdu poetry as Rekhata was first recognized in the South. Indian Muslims found it difficult to maintain their mother tongue as Persian. As a result, at the beginning of the 18th century, Hindus began to be spoken in the houses and courts of Indian Muslims. In the same process, Urdu emerged and developed. The oldest book Meeratul Ashkin written in Rekhata is a mystic prose book. Khwaja Bandanwaz Gesudraj is the author of this book. The script of this book is Parsi. After the disintegration of the Wahamani state, the Muslim Sultans of the south, especially the Sultans of Bijapur and Golconda, patronized Urdu. In the north, it was recognized in the court of Emperor Muhammad Shah in the mid-18th century. Muhammad Shah (1718–48 AD) was the first Mughal ruler who encouraged Urdu by inviting the famous poet of the Deccan Samasuddin Wali to recite his poems in the court. Wali came to Delhi in 1722 AD. Even before that he had come to Delhi. On coming to Delhi, he used the idioms of Delhi instead of Deccan idioms. This gave a new dimension to Urdu. This tradition developed further in the 18th century. Hatim Abu Hatim, Nazi Mazam and Mazhar were the first Urdu poets of Delhi. Among the second generation Urdu poets, Mir Tarki, Mir Khwaja, Mir Darda Sau, Soja, Shadi and Insha refined Urdu more. In the latter century, Urdu moved further on the path of development. Later, Urdu was accepted as the language of official business. This gave further impetus to its development.