JAINISM : PRINCIPLE OF JAINISM

JAINISM/SACRED LITERATURE/PRINCIPLES OF JAINISM/JAIN COUNCILS/JAIN LITERATURE/INDIAN HISTORY/ANCIENT INDIA
JAINISM

The founder and the father of Jainism was Mahavira.Born on 540 BC and his childhood name was Vardhamana at Kundagrama near Vaishali.
Father     —Siddhartha (chief of Jnatrik clan).
Mother   —Trishala (from Lichchhavi Family).
Wife       —Yashoda.
Daughter—Anojja Priyadarshani who was married to Jamali. his first disciple.

Mahavira gained Kaivalya (perfect knowledge ) under a sal tree, near village Jrimbhikagrama on the banks of the river Pjupalika and died at the age of 72 at Pavapuri, near Patna in 527 BC.
After the death of Mahavira, during the reign of king Chadragupta Maurya (the founder of Mauryan empire), a severe famine led to the migration of some Jains under Bhadrabahu to the Deccan. Sthalbhadra remained in North and allowed wearing white garments Bhadrabahu maintained nudity leading to division as Digambaras ( sky clad or naked ) and Shvetamber (white clad ). Shvetambaras (white clad) and Digambara (sky clad) were the two sects of Jainism.
There are  24 Tirthankaras in the history of Jainism.In Jainism ,three ratnas are given and they are called the way of Nirwana.

  1. Right Faith                 Samyak Vishwas.
  2. Right knowledge       Samyak Jnan.
  3. RightS conduct            SamyakS Karma.

Mahavira Swami was the last and the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism.

SACRED LITERATURE

Shvetambaras believe in these sacred literature written in a form of Prakrit called Ardhamagadhi.

  1. The twelve Angas
  2. The twelve Upangas
  3. The ten Parikarnas
  4. The six Chhedasutras
  5. The four Mulasutras.

Main teachings of Jainism are five and known as Pancha Mahavartas i.e., five vows of Jainism.

  1. Non-injury (Ahimsa).
  2. Non-lying (Truth).
  3. Non-possession (Aparigraha).
  4. Non-stealing (Asateya).
  5. Observe continence (Brahmacharya).

The first four principles were given by Parsavanatha  and the fifth one i.e., Brahmacharya was added by Mahavira.

PRINCIPLES OF JAINISM

Rejected the authority of the Vedas and the Vedic rituals.
Did not believe in the existence of God.
Attainment of Salvation (Moksha) by believing in penance and dying of starvation.
Laid great emphasis on equality or universal brotherhood.

NAME OF THE TIRTHANKARAS

SYMBOLS

Rishabha Dev (first)
Bull
Ajitnath (second )
Elephant
Neiminath (twenty second )
Conch shell
Parswanth (twenty third)
Serpent
Mahavira (twenty fourth)
Lion

JAIN COUNCILS

The first was held at Patliptra (Bihar) by Sthulbhdra, in the beginning of the third century BC and resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas to replace 14 Purvas.
The second AD 300-313 in Mathura and the chairman was Skandil.
The Third was held at Vallabhi (Gujarat) in the AD 5th century under the leadership of Devardhi and resulted in the final compilation of 12 Angas and 12 Upangas.

JAIN COUNCILS

Language    —-pali
Kalpsutra    —-written by Bhadrabahu
Aacharangsutra about rules and regulation for Jain Bhikshus.

2 comments

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