Jahangir (AD 1605-1627)
- Akbar’s eldest son Salim assumed the title Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir and ascended the throne.
- The fifth Sikh Guru Arjun Dev who had given shelter to Khusrau was tortured and put to death. Khusrau died in AD 1622 at the instance of Prince Khurram (later Shahjahan).
- Jahangir’s first political success was against the Mewar Rana Amar Singh (1615).
- In AD 1620, Prince Khurram conquered Kangra. Jahangir followed the policy of his father with regard to the Deccan.
- Rana’s son karan Singh was made a Mansabdar in the Mughal court.
- In AD 1611, Ahmednagar fell and Khurram was rewarded with the title ‘Shahjahan’.
- He married Mehr-u-nisa whom he gave the title Nur-Jahan.
- Nur Jahan was a politically shrewd and ambitious woman who dominated the royal household especially when Jahangir fell ill.
- She had a great influence on Jahangir’s life as she had the status of Pad Shah Begum. Coins were struck on her name and on all farmans, her name was attached to the imperial signature.
- Jahangir had a passion for justice, was a keen lover of nature and encouraged painting.
- He had laid a number of gardens, such as the Shalimar and Nishat gardens in Kashmir.
- Jahangir wrote his memoirs ‘Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri’ in Persian.
- He was buried at Shahdara near Lahore.
- Mughal painting reached its climax during his reign.
- Introduced ‘Du-Aspad’ and ‘Sin Aspah’ system in the Mansabdri system.
- Captain Hawkins (AD 1608-11) and Sir Thomas Roe (AD 1615-19) visited his court to gain court to favorable concessions for English trade with India. As a result of the efforts of Thomas Roe English, factories were established at Surat, Agra, Ahmedabad, and Broach.
- The famous Italian traveler Pietro Valle came during his reign.
The arts under His Reign
Although unanimously considered cruel, Jahangir was a lover of the arts. He was fond of painting, music, and architecture, mainly. The art of miniature was very advanced for a civilization of that time, even compared to the miniatures of Western Europe. From the beginning of his reign, he protected the artists and established in his capital a workshop that welcomed the artists who had his preference.
The style of the paintings was not static, the artists representing a complex landscape as well as an intimate scene or an allegory. There was also a lot of work in floral or animal art.
Death of Mughal Emperor Jahangir
In 1627, when the Mughal Emperor Jahangir was returning from Kashmir, he died due to deteriorating health in Lahore (Pakistan) on the way. Subsequently, Jahangir’s dead body was temporarily buried in the fort of Bagsar built on the banks of the Ravi river in Lahore.
Then later there was a grand mausoleum of Jahangir built by Begum Noor Jahan of Jahangir, which is still the main center of attraction of tourists in Lahore. At the same time, after the death of Jahangir, his son Khurram (Shah Jahan) succeeded in the Mughal throne.