INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION

INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION/SOME IMPORTANT SITES OF INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION/RELIGION/SEALS/TRADE AND COMMERCE
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION

TIME PERIOD

According to radio Carbon dating 2350 BC; According to Wheeler, 2500 BC-1500 BC.
The Indus Civilization belongs to proto –historic Period (Chalcolithic Age/Bronze Age). It is a urban civilization.
It is also called as Harappan Civilization because the first excavated site is Harappa.
The Indus Civilization was spread over Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western UP and Northern Maharashtra.
Town planning, well developed drainage system, gridiron layout and fortification were the main feature of Indus Valley Civilization.
The Northern most site of Indus Civilization                Ropar (Punjab) and Marda (Jammu and Kashmir).
The Southernmost site of  Indus Civilization                Bhagatrav (Gujarat) and Diamabad (Maharashtra).
The Eastern most site of Indus Civilization                   Alamgirpur (Uttar Pradesh).
The Western most site of Indus Civilization                  Sutkagendor (Makran Coast,Pakistan).

SOME IMPORTANT SITES OF INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION

HARAPPA

HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION
HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION

Situated in the Montgomri District of Punjab on the banks of Ravi river. It was excavated in 1921 by Dayaram Sahani.
Discoveries H-37 (graveyard).

MOHENJODARO

MOHENJODARO
MOHENJODARO

The Mohenjodaro, a Sindhi word meaning ‘mound of the dead’.
It was excavated in 1922 by RD Banerjee in Larkana district of Sindhi on the banks of Indus.

Things found from excavation

  1. A bronze dancing girl.
  2. A steatite statue of a priest.
  3. A seal bearing Pashupati.
  4. The evidence of an Indian ship ( figured on a seal).
  5. A piece of woven cloth.
  6. A bearded man.
  7. Two bronze granary.
  8. A great granary.
  9. Assembly house.

KALIBANGAN

KALIBANGAN CIVILIZATION
KALIBANGAN CIVILIZATION

It was excavated in 1953 by Mr Amlanand Ghosh in Rajasthan along the dried bed of the river Gaggar. This area has the largest concentration of Harappan settlements and also having distinct cultural traditions. Brick making industry. There was a brick making industry which provided fined bricks to the residing area.

CHANHUDARO

Excavated by Mr NG Majumdar in 1931. It is located on the Eastern side of Indus River in Pakistan.The inhabitants of Chanhudaro were perfect craftsmen. Very clear evidence of metal-works, shell ornament works and bead-makers’ shops were found here. A small pot was discovered here, which was probably an ink-pot.

LOTHAL

It was excavated in 1957 by Mr SR Rao and is located in Gujarat, on coastal flat of Gulf of Cambay.
Only site of Indus Valley Civilization having an artificial brick dockyard. Here only the earliest evidence of rice (1800 BC) found. Existence of fire altars shows the evidence of the fire-cult in Lothal.

BANWALI

Excavated in 1973-74 by Mr RS Bisht. It was found in Hisar (Haryana).
At Banwali, large quantity of barley, sesamum and mustard was found.

Things found from excavation

  1. Human and animal figures.
  2. Clay bangles.
  3. Statue of mother goddess.
  4. Tetracotta plough was also found here.

DHOLAVIRA

Excavated by Ms RS Bisht and is situated in the Rann of Kachchh (Gujarat).
It is the latest and one of the two largest Harappan settlements in India being the other one in Rakhigarhi (Haryana).

Famous Sites and their Findings

SITES

RIVERS

STATES

YEARS

DISCOVERED BY

IMPORTANT FINDINGS

Harappan
Ravi
Punjab
1921
Daya Ram Sahani
Cemeteries ‘H’ and ‘R37’
Mohenjodaro
Indus
Sindh
1922
Rakhal Das Benerjee
Seal depicting mother goddess with a plant growing from her womb
Chanhudaro
Indus
Sindh
1931
MG Majundar
City with a citadel
Lothal
Bhagava
Gujarat
1957
SR Rao
Dockyard,evidence of within burial
Kalibangan
Ghaggar
Rajasthan
1953
A Ghosh
Furrow mark, Fire altars
Banawali
Ghaggar
Harayan
1973
RS Bisht
Fire altars
Dholavira
Luni
Gujarat
1967
JP Joshi
City divided into three parts
Rangpur
Madar
Gujarat
1953
Madhoswarup Vats
Evidence of rice
Surkotada
Indus
Gujarat (Kachchh)
1972
Jagpati Goshi
Remains of horse

RELIGION

The chief male deity i.e., Pashupati Mahadeva (Protoshiva),represented on a seal surrounded by a elephant, a tiger, rhino and a buffalo, all facing in a different direction and two deer appear at his feet.
Female deity i.e., other Goddess-depicted in various styles.
Symbolic worship was also three—phallus worship, yoni worship some ways, shows the importance of fertility.
Evidence of fire worship was also found at Lothal, Kalibangan and Harappan.
Animal (Unicorn Bull) and tree worship (pipal) is also found there.
With supernatural powers, they also believed in evil-powers and might have used amulets as protection against them.

SEALS

indus valley civilization seals
indus valley civilization seals
Most of the seals are made of steatite i.e., a soft stone as the majority of the seals have an animal engraved on it with a short inscription.The shapes of seals are square, rolled, and triangular.The most frequently found animal is unicorn bull.The technique of cutting and polishing there seals with white luster was a unique invention of the Indus Valley Civilisation.

 

TRADE AND COMMERCE

Internal (In India) as well as external (foreign) trade prevailed during the Harappan Civilization.No metallic money but the barter system was practiced.
Main Crops Wheat and Barley, evidence of cultivation of rice in Lothal and Rangpur (Gujarat) only. Indus people were the first to produce cotton in the world. It was called ‘sindon’by the Greeks.
There is no clear cut evidence of the nature of polity, but it seems  that the ruling authority of the Indus Valley Civilization was a class of merchants.

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