INDIAN AGRICULTURE | ECONOMY

INDIAN AGRICULTURE
INDIAN AGRICULTURE
 

Agriculture comes under primary sector of Indian economy.The contribution of agriculture in GDP in 2008-09 was 18.9%.
It is mainstay of Indian economy.Agriculture and allied sector contributes nearly 18% of national income,while about 60% of the population is dependent of agriculture for their livelihood.
Moreover,this sector is a supplier of food,fodder and raw materials for a vast segment of industry.Hence,the growth of Indian agriculture can be considered a necessary condition for ‘inclusive growth’.
According to Lateral Statistical Organisation (LSO),between 1950-51 to 1960-61,the share of agriculture in GDP has been in the range of 52% and now it has declined and reached at a level of 14.6% in 2009-10.
Importance of agriculture in the national economy is indicated by many facts i.e., agriculture is the main support for India’s transport systems,secure bulk of their business for the movement of agricultural goods.Internal trade mostly in agriculture products.
Agriculture growth has direct impact on poverty eradication. It also provides livelihood to 65 to 70% of the total population.The sector provides employment to 52% of country’s workforce and is the single largest private sector occupation.
India’s foreign trade is deeply associated with agriculture sector.Agriculture and allied sector accounts for 9.1% of the total exports and it contributes about 38% in total exports of the county.
Besides, the allied sectors like horticulture,animal husbandry,dairy and fisheries have an important role in improving the overall economic condition and nutrition of the rural areas.

SHARE OF AGRICULTURE IN GDP

YEAR
AGRICULTURE
1950-51
56.5%
1970-71
45.9%
1990-91
34.0%
2007-08
17.8%
2008-09
15.7%
2009-10
14.6%

MINIMUM AGRICULTURE PRICE

To encourage the Agriculture sector,the government announces minimum support price for important agriculture crops.
It is announced for all major crops.The main objective,of announcing MSP is to prevent a fall in prices in the situation of over production and to protect the interest of farmers by ensuring them a minimum price for their crops in the situation of price fall in the market.

NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY MISSION

  1. The mission has been launched from 2007-08.It is a centrally sponsored scheme launched by Ministry of Agriculture.
  2. The mission is to increase the production of rice,wheat and pulses by 10,8 and 2 million tonnes, over the benchmark level of production,by the end of Eleventh Plan,i.e.,2012.

GREEN REVOLUTION

The credit for Green Revolution in India goes to Nobel Laurate Norman Barlaug as well as MS Swaminathan.
The Green Revolution was observed in 1966-67 in which agriculture scientists developed a number of new yielding varies of wheat by processing wheat seeds imported from Mexico.
These varieties having production potentialities of 60-65 quintals per hectare.
Thus,Indian Green Revolution is associated with the use of HYVS’s (High Yield Variety Seeds),chemical fertilizers and new technology which led to a sharp rise in agriculture production during the middle of 1960.

EVERGREEN REVOLUTION

Concept given by renowned agriculture scientist Dr M S Swaminathan.
The concept emphasizes on ‘organic agriculture’ and ‘green agriculture’ with the help of integrated pest management,integrated nutrient supply and integrated natural resource management.
The cause of the evergreen revolution is “Sustainability“.

WHITE REVOLUTION

It is associated with a sharp increase in milk production.To increase the pace of White Revolution,Operation Flood was started by National Dairy Development Board in 1970.
The father of Operation Flood was Dr Vargnhese Kurien.
India is the largest milk producing county in the world.

MAJOR AGRICULTURE REVOLUTIONS

REVOLUTION
PRODUCTION
Black Revolution
Petroleum Production
Blue Revolution
Fish Production
Brown Revolution
Leather/non-conventional (India)/Honey Production
Golden Revolution
Overall Horticulture development/Honey Production
Green Revolution
Food grain(Cereals, Wheat and Leguminous plant) production
Grey Revolution
Fertilizer Revolution
Pink Revolution
Onion production/Pharmaceutical (India)/Prawn production
Rainbow Revolution
Holistic development of agriculture sector
Red Revolution
Meat and Tomato Production
Round Revolution
Potato Revolution
Silver Fiber Revolution
Cotton Revolution
Silver Revolution
Egg/Poultry Production
White Revolution
Milk/Dairy production(In India-Operation Flood)
Yellow Revolution
Oil Seeds production
Evergreen Revolution
Increase in productivity and prosperity without ecological harm

New Agriculture Policy,2000 has been planned to give emphasis on promoting agriculture exports after fulfilling domestic demand.It has been described a “Rainbow Revolution” which includes the following revolutions –Green,White,Yellow,Blue,Red,Golden,Grey,Black,Brown(Non-Conventional Energy Sources) Silver,Round (Potato).

NATIONAL BANK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT (NABARD)

It is the apex institution of rural credit and was established on 12th July,1982 by merging of Agriculture Credit Department and reconstruction of Agriculture and Development Corporation of the Reserve Bank of India.

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