India-China Border Dispute: A Conflict Explained

India-China Border Dispute: A Conflict Explained

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INDIA-CHINA BORDER

Established diplomatic relations with the national government led by India-China relations. India gave its recognition in December 1949 to the communist government of Maotsse Tung, which was established in China on October 1, 1949, and gave it full support to get membership of the United Nations. Thus, India enjoyed friendly relations with China since independence, but its results proved to be extremely disappointing for India.

In order to understand the tensions that have arisen between India and China, it is necessary to know the various aspects related to Chinese activities, border disputes and the 1962 Chinese invasion of Tibet.

Tibet dispute

In October 1950, the People’s Liberation Army invaded Tibet and subjugated it. Tibet was established as a ‘buffer state’ between India and China. India had the right to control since the British rule on the 2000-mile border in the Tibet region. Despite being distracted by this aggressive action by China, India decided to maintain friendly relations with it and in 1954 signed a treaty with China and recognized its authority over Tibet. The treaty incorporated the Panchsheel principles as a director of mutual relations between India and China.

Under the said treaty, India allowed China to establish its own commercial agencies in Delhi, Calcutta and Kalingapong, while China allowed India to establish its trade center in Tibet.

A public outcry erupted in Tibet in March 1959 as a result of China’s systematic efforts to curtail Tibet’s autonomy. China crushed this rebellion by repressive measures, which was severely opposed at the public level in India. India provided political asylum to the Tibetan religious leader Dalai Lama and his followers, but the Government of India did not give any recognition to the Government of Tibet. Nevertheless, China openly held India responsible for inciting rebellion in Tibet and in 1959, 12000 square miles of Indian territory was annexed in Longan and Ladakh regions. In September 1959, the first white paper on India-China relations was tabled in the Indian Parliament, which clarified to the United Nations that during the infancy of the 1954 Agreement, Indian and Chinese forces were stationed in a tense environment in the border. A number of protest letters, memorandum and memorandum were also exchanged on the border problem between the two countries, in which both the countries presented their claims.

India-China border dispute

China asserted its claim to 40,000 square miles of India and started violating the Indian border. China claimed that there was historically no treaty between the Indian government and the central government of China. He declared the previously located McMahon Line illegal because it was the result of aggressive British policies on the Tibetan region of China.

On the other hand, India believed that the historical boundaries between the two countries were based on the geographical principle of the highest waterfowl and in most of the region those boundaries were recognized in specific agreements reached by the then governments of the two countries. Despite continuous violations of Indian borders by China between 1959–62, India tried to resolve the border dispute by peaceful measures. Mutual talks were held several times by the officials of the two countries. In April 1960, Chinese Prime Minister Chou En Lai also visited India. But no solution to the problem could be found.

1962 Chinese Invasion

On September 8, 1962, Chinese forces deliberately encroached the McMahon Line in the North-Eastern Frontier Agency (NEFA, modern-day Arunachal Pradesh) region. On 20 October 1962, China invaded the entire border from Ladakh to Nefah. In the face of this severe and tremendous invasion of China, Indian armies had to face defeat and a large Indian territory was established over the Chinese. During the war, India received assistance from both the Western powers and the Soviet Union. On 21 November 1962, China dramatically announced a unilateral ceasefire across the border area and 20 km from the Line of Actual Control. The retreat was announced. But even then, China remained in possession of Ladakh region of importance. China also warned India that it would invade India again if India did not move beyond the actual Line of Control in the eastern region or retreat from the actual line of control of the central and western region.

In the middle of 1962, 6 Afro-Asian countries – Indonesia, Myanmar, United Arab Republic, Ghana, Sri Lanka – attempted to reach a compromise between the two countries through the ‘Colombo Resolution’. According to this proposal, China is 20 km from the traditional border line. There was a provision to withdraw, accept the Line of Actual Control in the eastern region as a ceasefire line by both countries and maintain the status quo in the central region.

India approved the Colombo proposal, but China rejected the said proposal, challenging the right of the Indian Army to deploy on the McMahon Line and to establish civilian posts in civilian declared territory. Thus, there was a deadlock in the relations between India and China.

 

India-China Border Dispute

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