Humayun (AD 1530-1556)

Humayun was born on 6 March 1508 as the son of Babur, an eminent Mughal emperor of Kabul. His mother’s name was Maham Begum, in childhood everyone called him Naseeruddin Muhammad Humayun. He was the eldest and most beloved son of Babur. Humayun’s three brothers were Kamran Mirza, Askari and Hindal, for whom Humayun had divided his empire, but later suffered a lot due to it. The Mughal ruler Humayun was just 12 years old, when he was appointed as the Subedar of Badakhshan. At the same time, as the Subedar, Humayun participated in all the campaigns in India which were led by his father Babur.
Mughal Emperor Humayun

Humayun was the second Mughal ruler who ruled parts of present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northern India from 1531–1540 and then again from 1555–1556. Like his father Babur, he soon lost his empire but later recovered with the help of the Safavid dynasties of Persia. At the time of his death in 1556, the Mughal Empire was spread over about one million kilometers. Humayun later lost his authority by defeating Sher Shah Suri even from Pashtun but later with Persian help he regained it. Humayun also made some important changes in the Mughal court during his reign.

Battle Of Dauhariya

In the year 1532, there was a war between Afghan Sardar Mahmud Lodi and a huge army of Humayun called Dauhariya, in this war, Mahmud Lodi could not stand before Humayun’s might and he had to face defeat. At the same time, this war was called the war of Dauhariya.

Battle with Bahadur Shah

Bahadur Shah, the ruler of Gujarat, took control of the fort of Malwa in 1531 AD and ‘Raisin’ in 1532 AD. In 1534, he attacked Chittor and forced him to a treaty. Bahadur Shah built a superior artillery with the help of Rumi Khan, a skilled gunner from Turkey. On the other hand, Sher Khan won a lot of respect by defeating Bengal in ‘Raj of Surajgarh’. His growing power was a matter of concern for Humayun, but Humayun’s first problem was Bahadur Shah. There was a struggle between Bahadur Shah and Humayun in Sarangpur in 1535 AD. Bahadur Shah was defeated and fled to Mandu.

In this way, after Humayun’s victory over Mandu and Champaner, Malwa and Gujarat came under his authority. After this, Bahadur Shah besieged Chittor. Karnavati, the mother of Chittor ruler Vikramajit, sent a rakhi to Humayun on this occasion and asked him for help against Bahadur Shah. However, the request of Bahadur Shah not to assist a Kafir state was accepted by Humayun. A year later, Bahadur Shah, with the help of the Portuguese, again annexed Gujarat and Malwa in 1536 AD, but Bahadur Shah died in February, 1537 AD.

Battle of chausa

In the year 1539, a battle was fought between Humayun and Sheikh Khan’s army at a place called Chausa. In this war the Mughal army suffered heavy losses and the Afghan army won. Humayun escaped from the war zone and somehow saved his life by crossing the river Ganga with the help of a Bhisti. The Bhisti who had saved his life in the Battle of Chausa, was made the Emperor of Delhi for a day by Humayun. After Chausa succeeded in the battle, Sher Khan equipped himself with the title of ‘Sher Shah’ (at the time of coronation), as well as carved out the names of his name and ordered the coin to be cast.

Battle of Kannauj

In the Battle of Kannauj, the Mughal and Afghan forces once again came face to face in 1540 AD. In this war, Humayun’s army was decisively defeated by the Afghan army. Humayun left India and lived a life of expulsion. In this way, he lived a life full of expulsion for the next 15 years. He took refuge in the court of Shah Tasmasp Aidab of Iran (Persia). He was fully capable of conquering Kandahar with his brother Askari. And then he conquered Kabul from Kamran in 1547 AD.


Sher Shah died in 1545 AD as a boon to Humayun. Sher Shah’s successors were not strong and capable enough to sustain the rule created by Sher Shah. Humayun campaigned from Kabul towards Delhi in 1555 AD and defeated the Afghan ruler Sikander Suri in Punjab. After that he turned to Delhi and Agra and easily accepted both. Although he could rule for only 6 months and fell down the stairs of his palace, due to which he died.


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