Ancient city of Jerusalem
Like Kashi, Mathura, Ayodhya, Mecca, Gandhara, Peshawar, Nalanda, Taxila, Tehran, Medina, Baghdad, Mosul, Rome, Egypt, Lonan, Athens, Ujjain, Rameswaram and Jagannath, Jerusalem is also an ancient and historical city. The city is originally a Jewish city but later became a holy site for Christians and Muslims as well. There was a Sulaimani temple (synagogue) which now houses the mosque, church and synagogue.
Here is the Masjid al-Haram of Muslims, which is called the Golden Temple or Dome of the Rock. Nearby is the Al Aqsa Mosque. Behind this is the Western Wall, which is the holiest site of the Jews. One kilometer away from it is the holiest church of Christianity. Here was the holiest temple of the Jews, which was demolished by the Romans in the 72nd century. Now only one wall of this temple is left.
It is said that this synagogue, built in 937 BC, was so huge that it took a whole day to see it, but battles destroyed it. Now this site is called ‘Sacred Complex’. It is believed that it was built by King Suleiman. Jews gather for prayer in the sacred complex surrounded by fortified walls. The wall of this complex is very ancient and grand. This sacred complex is part of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Introduction to Jerusalem
Jerusalem is called Jerusalem in Hebrew and al-Quds in Arabic. It is also called Jerusalem. Israel has 4 main regions – Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Haifa and Beer Shev. Jerusalem is the largest city of Israel. There is a dispute going on to make it the capital of Israel. Currently the capital of Israel is Tel Aviv. The Jordan border begins near Jerusalem. It also borders Tel Aviv of Israel.
Jerusalem is a magnificent city situated on the border of Israel between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea. Near the city limits is the Dead Sea with the highest salt content in the world. It is said that there is so much salt in the water here that no life can flourish in it and no one drowns in it due to the salt present in its water.
Jerusalem has about 1204 synagogues, 158 churches, 73 mosques, many ancient tombs, 2 museums and a sanctuary. Apart from this, there are many places to see in the old and new city. All the religious places in Jerusalem are located around a very large square wall and on a mountain.
Standing on the Mount of Olives, as you look at the ancient city of Jerusalem in front of you, you stop to be mesmerized by the sight of its panoramic and magnificent view. The beautiful dome and the wall behind the domes are visible from Olives Hill. Surrounded by hill walls of one square kilometer, for thousands of years of history, this city is the center of faith of more than half of the world’s population.
About 75 percent of Israel’s residents, including Jerusalem, are Jewish, 15 percent Muslim and 10 percent follow other religions. It has Christian and Armenian. The official language here is Hebrew, but Arabic and English are spoken more now. The name of this city appears 700 times in the Bible written in Hebrew. Jews and Christians believe that this is the center of the earth.
Small shops of beautiful and carved specialty items, restaurants exuding the aroma of exciting flavors, people in colorful costumes, the mix of sights, sounds and fragrances can make anyone go crazy about this city. Jerusalem has two parts – the Old City and the New City.
History of jerusalem
This ancient city of the Middle East is the meeting place of Jews, Christians and Muslims. It is important for the people of the above three religions, that is why everyone wants to maintain their possession here. Palestine wants to make it their capital while Israel as its own. Part of Israel is the Gaza Strip and Ramallah, where Palestinian Muslims live and have waged an insurgency to break away from Israel. These people want to free Jerusalem from the occupation of Israel.
For hundreds of years this place has been the center of controversy. From the very beginning there were 10 tribes of Jews in the ancient Jewish state of Israel. Hazrat Musa migrated from Egypt and settled with his tribesmen in Jerusalem, because it was their ancient city. After the holy kings of the Jews, David and Solomon, this place was occupied by the Babylonians and Iranians, then after the rise of Islam, the Muslims ruled here for a long time. During this time the Jews were driven out of this area several times.
Crusade: Crusade or Crusade War. The crucifixion means the war to protect the Christian religion. Christianity means war for Christianity or Christianity. Most people interpret it this way but what is the truth can be a matter of research. During the period of Jihad and Crusade, Salahuddin and Richard fought many battles for the capture of this city. The Knight Templars were also formed during this time to protect Christian pilgrims.
The seven wars between 1095 and 1291, called the Crusades, were fought by Christians to capture the tomb of Christ in Palestine, the holy land of Christianity and its capital, Jerusalem. It is also called the cross war in history. This war took place seven times, hence it is also called the seven crush war. During that period, the army of Islam had kept its suzerainty on this land.
First Crusade: If the Christian army did not destroy Jerusalem in 1096-99 and establish the Christian Empire, then it might not have been called the First Crusade. Whereas in Jerusalem Muslims and Jews lived in their respective areas. This massacre forced the Muslims to think.
Under Jangi’s leadership, Muslims united in Damascus and for the first time the Arabic word ‘jihad’ was used. Whereas at that time it used to mean struggle. Not a struggle for Islam, but the word was made a struggle for Islam.
Second Crusade: In 1144, the Second Crusade took place between King Louis of France and Nuruddin, the slave of Jangi. In this the Christians had to face defeat. In 1191, the Pope handed over the command of the Third Crusade to King Richard I of England, while Jerusalem was occupied by Salahuddin. Even in this war, Christians had to see bad days. While these wars decimated the Jews, they also left no room for the Christians.
But one thing always remained in common in this war that the Jews had to leave their country to survive their existence and remain a constant courtier when there was no one else to support them. They were either living under Muslim rule or living under Christian rule.
After this, the fight for the occupation of other areas, including Jerusalem, which started at the end of the 11th century, continued for 200 years, while Christians, Jews and Muslims in all the countries of Israel and Arabia continued to fight for their respective territories and religious supremacy. During this period, Islam threw its full force into India.
Islam had been established in the countries of Israel, Iran, Afghanistan, India, Africa, etc., during the Islamic rule of about 600 years. Islam had become a major force in the world due to continuous war and repression. In this war, the existence of many cultures and other religions had disappeared.
The beginning of the 17th century marked the beginning of the end of Islamic rule in the major countries of the world where Islam was being imposed. This was the period of the British when power was being snatched from the Muslims. This did not happen only in India. At the same time, discontent against the West grew among the Arab nations and they began to unite under the leadership of Iran and Saudi Arabia.
For a long time the world was divided into four parts, Islamic rule, Chinese rule, British rule and others. Then the 19th century began as a new dawn for many countries. There were communist movements, freedom movements and cultural struggles increased. Due to this, 1939 World War II started, the end of which broke many countries of the world and many new countries were born.
The Jews got their lost land back to Israel in World War II. Here Jews from all over the world began to gather again. After this he started expelling Muslims from there, in protest against which Yasser Arafat emerged in Palestine area. A new battle started again. It was named Depression and Terror.
Jews reunited with Israel: After World War II, Israel became a Jewish nation again, then Jerusalem was also annexed and Jews from all over the world were resettled in Israel.
In this way the Jews also wanted their right on this land. Christians, Jews and Muslims, people of all three religions are still fighting for that land.
Old and New City:
Ancient City or Old City: On entering the Old City, it is as if we are living in the first century. There are 8 ancient gates to enter the Old City. Jaffa Gate, Zion Gate, Dung Gate, Golden Gate, Lion Gate, Herod’s Gate, Damascus Gate and New Gat.
All eyes are on the 4 quarters located in the Old City, where Jews, Christians, Armenians and Muslims live. Within the walled city are the holiest places of 3 religions – The Western Wall, Al Aqsa Mosque and the Church of the Holy Sculpture. Apart from this, there are many more here, such as the Tower of King David of Jerusalem and numerous ancient tombs and churches. Actually, the old city is considered the true Jerusalem. Christians and Jews consider it the center of the world.
Four Quarters of the Old City: Crossing the path after the compound at the front of the Western Wall, the area of the Jewish Quarter begins. To exit the Old City, there is a nearby Dung Gate, from where you can exit to the Quarden Valley. From where the border of the Jewish Quarter ends, the border of the Muslim Quarter begins at Herods and ends at the Lion Gate. The area of the Muslim Quarter is also very large. Behind the Muslim quarter is the Christian quarter and behind the Jewish quarter is the Armenian quarter.
The New Gate for the Christian Quarter and the Jaffa and Zion Gate for the Armenian Quarter are close by. Church of Dermition is built on the Jion Gate itself. From here you can go to see the City of David on Zion Hill. Damascus Gate is located on the dividing line of the Muslim and Christian quarters.
New City or The New City: On the other hand, leaving the Old City, you enter the 21st century, with modern hotels and buildings, modern traffic and modern lifestyle. Best place and transport system for tourists to stay. West Jerusalem’s downtown area (The New City) is bustling on Fridays and Saturdays with its central triangle Jaffa Road, King George Road and Ben Yehudah Street. There are plenty of ancient churches, mosques, and synagogues to see in The New City as well.
Historical places of Jerusalem
Tower of David: The ancient ‘Tower of David’, which is also called Burj Dawood or Dome of David, is built on the ancient Jaffa Gate near Zion. It is believed that here is the tomb of King Suleiman (Solomon). From here the old city is entered. There is a fortified wall around this gate and as soon as you enter the gate, there is Armenian quarter on one side and Christian quarter on the other. Crowds of people also gather to see the ‘City of David’ on Zion hill outside the gate.
Solomon Temple: Solomon was the son of David who was considered the emperor of Israel. The Solomon Temple is believed to have been built in the 10th century BC. Originally this temple belongs to the Hebrew (Jewish) sect. The Holy Solomon Temple was destroyed by the Romans. The said temple is recorded in the Bible as the name of the first prayer hall. The site of this imposing temple surrounded by a walled wall now houses the Temple Mount and the Western Wall, in addition to the important Jewish sites, the Al-Aqsa Mosque, the Dome of the Rock and the Church. However, this is another subject of controversy.
City of David: After the name of Emperor David of Israel, his son Suleiman established a city which is called ‘City of David’. The remains of this ancient city can still be seen today on the Jeon hill, coming out of the Jeon Gate or Dung Gate of the Old City. The city is believed to be about 3,000 years old. It was built along with the Temple of Solomon. This city is a major center of attraction among tourists. This is where his grave is near the Dermition Church.
Historical Museums and Monuments: Apart from religious places, there is ‘The Israel Museum’ of ancient and religious texts. Israel’s Holocaust Museum, which is called ‘Yad Vashem’, is of great importance. Here there are documents related to the history of Jerusalem and information about the monuments and memorabilia of the martyrs etc. The history of both the museums is very old.
The Forest of Jerusalem: The Nobel Sanctuary, spread over an area of 35 acres located in the Muslim area, consists of Al-Aqsa Mosque, Dome of the Rock, fountains, gardens, domes and ancient buildings. Apart from this, the beauty of the small Garden of Gethmin is also worth seeing. Apart from this, the area of ’Yad Vashem’ is also famous as the forest of Jerusalem.
Sacred Premises: Jews gather for prayer in the sacred complex surrounded by a fortified wall. The wall of this complex is very ancient and grand. This sacred complex is part of the Old City. The grandeur of this complex is made on the hill. In the upper part of this complex there are holy places of all the three religions. There is also a complex in the middle of the said holy site. The grandeur of this complex is made on the hill. In the upper part of this complex there are holy places of all the three religions. There is also a complex in the middle of the said holy site.
There are places of all three religions near the wall. There is an ancient mountain here named Olive. A beautiful view of Jerusalem can be seen from this mountain. There are many ancient tombs on the slopes of this mountain. Jerusalem is visible from all sides with mountains and valleys.
Wailing Wall: Wailing Wall is also called ‘Wall of Lamentation’. It is the holiest site of the Jews. It is believed that this ancient prayer hall is the complex of Solomon Temple. Al-Aqsa Mosque is located in the upper part of this wall. Nearby is the Temple Mount i.e. Dome of the Rock. This wall is also called the western wall.
It is believed that Jews mourn and pray in front of the wall in the sorrow of having lost their religious place on top of the wall. Once a part of the Al-Aqsa Mosque (Alharam-Alsharif), this site is a holy site for both Jews and Muslims.
This wall is the remaining symbol of the holy temple. Here inside the temple is the ‘Holy of the Holy’, the holiest place of the Jews. Jews believe that it was here that the first stone was laid, on which the world was created, where Abraham sacrificed his son Isaac. The Western Wall is the closest place to the ‘Holy of the Holy’ where Jews can pray. Millions of Jews from all over the world come here and connect with their heritage. Wherever the Jews are in the world, they worship with their faces facing Jerusalem.
Temple Mount: The Jews call it ‘Temple Mount’. Near this temple is the Golden Gate, from where one can go outside the Old City. The dome of the temple is studded with gold. It is believed that God originated the first man here. It was here that the dust gathered for the creation of man. This place is a holy place for Muslims, Christians and Jews. Everyone wants to dominate it.
Dome of the Rock: Temple Mount itself is called Dome of the Rock. Muslims believe that the Dome of the Rock is the place from where Prophet Muhammad was first instructed to pray. Although some people believe that the Dome of the Rock is between the Temple Mount and the Al Aqsa Mosque.
It is said that Prophet Mohammed went to heaven by jumping on a stone in Jerusalem and came back after talking to Allah. So that stone, the structure built around it is Harmal Sharif. When you go towards Harmal Sharif, there is a gate here which is called Gate of Scales in English. Muslims believe that when the end of the world will come, then the final judgment will come, then on this gate there will be a scale to weigh your sins and virtues. This is where your final judgment will be. Right in front of Harmal Sharif there is a mosque named Al Aqsa. Wellingwadal, Al Aqsa Mosque and Harmal Sharif are together called Temple Mount.
Al Aqsa Mosque: Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem is also known as ‘Alharam-Alsharif’. Muslims consider it the third holiest site. They believe that it was from here that Hazrat Muhammad went to heaven and returned to earth with the orders of Allah. The wall behind this mosque is called the west wall, where there is a large complex below. Apart from this, there are other holy sites of Muslims, such as Quwwat al-Sakra, Musala Marwan and Gumbad Sakhra are also included in the ancient mosques.
Church of the Holy Sculpture
The city also holds great importance for Christians, as the city witnessed the last part of the life of Jesus Christ. Adjacent to the walls of the old city is an ancient holy church, which is believed to be where the Lord Jesus rose again. This church has been built on the same place where Jesus Christ was seen alive again. Christians believe that Jesus will once again come to Jerusalem. It is also believed that this is the site of the Last Supper of Christ. This is the tomb where Jesus Christ was buried. There are three slabs of stone here. One where he was first buried, the second where he was found alive and the third where he was buried again.
Church of Dermition: The importance of Church of Dermition located near Zion Gate is also no less. It is believed that its first name was Virgin Mary. This place is known as Mother Mary’s place. Here is his beautiful statue and here is an ancient inscription on which is written about the church in Hebrew language. Next is the tomb of King David. There is also a church opposite the Lion Gate, where the tomb of the Virgin Mary is located.
Viva Dolorosa: The Viva Dolorosa is the area from which Jesus was taken with the cross. It is considered the path of sorrow or pain. Route from Holy Sculpture to Flagellation. Following this passage the Church of the Flagellation in the eastern part of the Old City is believed to be the place where Jesus was publicly condemned and crucified. It is a Roman Catholic church, near St. Stephen’s Gate. Near this church is also the Church of Sant Anna, which was built in the 12th century.
Other Churches: There is controversy as to whether Mary Magdalene was a disciple or wife of Jesus. Next to the Lion Gate outside the Old City walls is an ancient church named after him. Apart from this, many churches of historical importance of Christians are in the Old and New City.