The ancient detailed written history of Kashmir is Rajatarangini, which was written by Kalhan in the 12th century AD. Till then there was a full Hindu state here. It was also part of the empire of Ashoka the Great. Around the third century AD was ruled by Ashoka.

Then Buddhism arrived here, which later prospered under the Kushanas. Hinduism returned once again in the sixth century under Maharaj Vikramaditya of Ujjain.

Among the Hindu kings of Kashmir, Lalitaditya (697 to 738 AD) became the most famous king whose kingdom extended to Bengal in the east, Konkan in the south, Turkistan in the north-west, and Tibet in the north-east. Lalitaditya built many magnificent buildings.

Islam arrived in Kashmir in the 13th and 14th centuries. Zain-ul-Abedin (1420-70) became the most famous ruler among the Muslim rulers, who came to power in Kashmir when the Hindu king Singhdev fled after the Tatars attacked.

Later the Chak rulers repulsed the army of Hyder Shah, the son of Zain-ul-Awadin and ruled Kashmir till 1586. In 1586, Akbar conquered Kashmir. In 1752, Kashmir came out of the hands of the then weak Mughal emperor and passed into the hands of Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan.

The Pathans ruled the Kashmir Valley for 67 years. The Pathans were defeated by the ruler of Punjab, Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1714, and the Sikh Empire came.

the Lahore Treaty

The Sikhs were defeated by the British in 16, which resulted in the Lahore Treaty. Maharaja Gulab Singh was crowned by the British who became the independent ruler of Kashmir. The Gilgit Agency remained a territory under the British political agents.

The Gilgit region was considered out of the Kashmir region. The agent was reappointed by the British in Jammu and Kashmir. Maharaja Hari Singh, the eldest grandson of Maharaja Gulab Singh, ascended the throne in 1925 AD, who ruled until 1947 AD.


After independence, Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir entered into a neutral agreement with Pakistan and India. The pact was signed with Pakistan. Prior to the signing of the pact with India, Pakistan cut off essential supplies of Kashmir which was in violation of the neutrality agreement.

He started adopting a method of pressure for accession, which was not acceptable to both India and Kashmir.
When this method of pressure failed, Pakistan incited, instigated and supported the Pathan castes’ invasion of Kashmir. The then Maharaja Hari Singh urged India for help. It was a matter of October 24, 1947.

There was no question of Pakistan’s jurisdiction to enter into Hari Singh’s merger agreement. The merger of Kashmir into India was considered legitimate. And thereafter, on 27 October 1947, India sent an army to drive out the Pathan invaders and made Kashmir an integral part of India.


One comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.