History of Iran before Islam
The border of Iran kept increasing every time. Today’s Iran is very different from Iran of ancient times. Iran was first identified as a cross country. Before that it was called Aryana. In ancient times, Paras was the residence of a branch of the Aryans. In the Vedic era, all the land from the Paras to the banks of the Ganges and Saryu was Aryan land, which was divided into many regions. Just as the area around Punjab in India was called Aryavarta, similarly in ancient Paras, the eastern region adjoining modern Afghanistan was called ‘Arian’ or ‘Ariyan’ (Greek Ariana), which later formed the word ‘Iran’.
Aryans used to refer to the names of Iran’s Sasan Vanshi emperors and officials, such as ‘Iran Spahpat’ (Iran’s sepoy or commander), ‘Iran Umbarakpat’ (Iran’s Bhandari) etc. The ancient Zoroastrians used to name their words ‘Arya’ with great pride. The ancient emperor Daryavhu (Dara) wrote himself Ariyaputra. The word ‘Arya’ is found in the names of the chieftains, such as Ariyramra, Ariovarjanis etc.
How Paras got the name of Paras: Among the many territories in which the ancient Paras were divided, there was also a Parse or Parasya region lying on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Paras, after which the whole country was named Paras, whose name is Persia. Its ancient capital was Parasipur (Unani-Persepolis), where ‘Istakh’ was later settled. The name ‘Paras’ did not become famous during the Vedic period. The name came to be used for the whole country from the time of the emperors of the Takhamani dynasty, who belonged to the region of Parsya. This is the reason why this word is not detected in Vedas and Ramayana, but in the Mahabharata, Raghuvansh, Kathasaritsagar etc., the mention of Parsya and Parsikas is equal.
The ancient Paras were divided into several territories. The region southwest of the Caspian Sea was called Media, which may have been the answer to ancient texts like Ethereya Brahmana. Zarathustra (founder of Zoroastrianism) preached his branch here. Historians believe that Zarathustra took place between 1700-1500 BC. It was around the same time that King Sudas ruled Aryavarta and on the other hand Hazrat Ibrahim was propagating his religion…. The establishment of the oldest kingdom of Paras is known from this region. Previously this region was under the authority of the non-Aryan Asura caste whose country (present-day Assyria) was from here to the west. This caste was a child of beans completely different from Aryans, under which Jews and Arabs.
Iran’s religion was Parsi religion before Islam. In the 6th century BCE, a great Parsik (ancient Iranian) empire was established in ‘Persepolis’ which ruled over 3 continents and 20 nations for a long time. The Rajdharma of this empire was ‘Zoroastrian’, founded by Zartoshta or Zarathustra from 1700-1800 BC and its millions of followers spread from Rome to the Indus River.
According to the history of Zoroastrians before the kingdom of Iran came into the hands of the Arabs (Muslim Caliphate), so many dynasties ruled Iran in order: –
1. Mahabad dynasty
2. Peshdadi dynasty
3. Kawayani dynasty
4. First Modi Dynasty
5. Asura (Assyrian) dynasty
6. Second Modi dynasty
7. Hakhamani dynasty (Azimgarh empire)
8. Parthian or Askani dynasty and
9. Sasan or Sassanian dynasty.
The descent of Mahabad and Goormad is legendary. They used to fight with the gods. In the Kavayani dynasty, the traps, Rustam etc. were valor, who after fighting with the Turanis have immortalized their fame in the Shahnama of Firdausi. In this dynasty, there was anguish around 1300 BC, during which time Zarathustra emerged.
The descent of Mahabad and Goormad is legendary. They used to fight with the gods. Husang, grandson of Goormad, undertook farming, irrigation, armory, etc. and got the title of Peshdad (Regulator). This is how the dynasty got its name. His son Tehemur established many cities. Civilization spread and got the title of Deoband (Deoghan). Jamshed was born in this dynasty, whose fame and justice is very famous. He corrected the Samvatsar and started the New Year festival on the spring equinox which is popular among the Parsis by the name of Jamshedi Nauroz.
I was settled by Persepolis Vistasp’s son, but at first he considered Jamshed to be inhabited. His son, Farendu, was a great hero, who drove away Rajahari Johk with the help of a Kava warrior. In the Kavayani dynasty, traps, Rustam etc. were valiant, who after fighting with the Turanis have immortalized themselves in the Shahnama of Firdausi. This dynasty took place around 1300 BC, during which time Zarathustra emerged.
First attack on Iran: According to Professor Ali Ansari of St. Andrews University, Scotland, every visitor visiting the ruins of Persepolis, the capital of the ancient Iranian Achaemenid Empire, is told three things that it was built by Darius the Great. It was further enhanced by his son Xerxus, but it was destroyed by ‘the man’ named Alexander.
In 576 BC, the founder of the new empire was ‘Cyrus the Great’ (Persian: Kurosh), who was of the ‘Hakkamanis’ dynasty. The reign (522-486 BCE) of the Emperor ‘Daryavush’ I of this dynasty, also known as ‘Dara’ or ‘Darius’, is called the climax period of the Parsiq empire.
This empire could not survive in front of Alexander’s invasion in 330 BC. In 224 AD, another dynasty ‘Sassenian’ was established by the Zoroastrian saint ‘Ardashir’ (Artakashira) I, and the dynasty continued to rule until about 7th century. Islam entered Iran in the early 7th.
Islamic Invasion and Zoroastrian Conflict: Before the origin of Islam, Zoroastrianism was prevalent in ancient Iran. In the 7th century, the Turks and Arabs brutally attacked Iran and provided for the slaughtering. After the fall of the ‘Sassanian’ empire, the Parsis fled their country to escape being persecuted by the Muslim invaders. In this phase of the Islamic Revolution, some Iranians did not accept Islam and fled to India in a boat.
The first group of Parsi refugees came to Khorasan in Central Asia (today the region is divided into several nations, except eastern Iran). He lived there for almost 100 years. When there was also an Islamic disturbance, many of them fled to the island of Urmuz at the mouth of the Persian Gulf and lived there for 15 years.
In the future, the invaders were caught sight of it, so in the end they took their sacred fire and religious books in a small ship and came to the island of Diu, India in the Gulf of Khambhat, singing the saga of their condition, which in that period Was under the occupation of Portugal. Even there, the Portuguese did not allow them to rest peacefully, then they settled in a place called ‘Sanjan’, the kingdom of King Yadav Rana, about 25 miles south of Daman, around 716 AD.
These Parsi refugees named their first settlement as ‘Sanjan’, because a city of the same name is in Turkmenistan from where they came. In a span of a few years another group (khursani or kohistani) came, who brought with them the religious device (alat). There is also information about the arrival of a third group from the site. In this way, the Zoroastrians who did not adopt Islam either died or took refuge in India.
King Jari Rana of the region near Daman-Diu, Gujarat gave shelter to him and also provided land and various types of assistance for the establishment of his fire temple. The first Parsi fire temple was built in 721 AD. Indian Parsis begin their Samvat with the influence of their last king Yajdzard-1.
By the end of the 10th century, they started settling in other parts of Gujarat as well. Like Iran in the 15th century in India, because of the Islamic revolution, due to the Muslim invasion of ‘Sanjan’, the Parsis of the place left Navsari with holy fire after saving their lives. After the British rule, the people of Parsi religion got some relief.
When the British opened factories in Surat in the 16th century, a large number of Parsi artisans and traders participated enthusiastically. The British also traded through them, for which they were appointed brokers. Later, ‘Bombay’ became the British and needed artisans etc. for its development. With development, the Zoroastrians turned to Bombay. In this way, people of Parsi religion started doing business in Surat after Gujarat after Diu and Daman and then settled in Bombay. Presently the population of Parsis in India is around 1 lakh of which 70% live in Mumbai.
Not Iranian Muslim?
Iran is the only country where Shia is the national religion. Also in Iraq and Bahrain are Shia in majority. The ideological confrontation between Saudi Arabia and Iran is at its worst due to religious differences. According to Saudi Arabia’s largest religion Guru Mufti Abdul Aziz al-Sheikh, Iranians are not Muslims. Abdul-Aziz is the Chief of the Islamic Organization established by the Saudi King. He said that the Iranian people have been followers of Zoroastrian religion.
He had said, ‘We people should understand that Iranians are not Muslims because they are children of Mejai (Parsis). And he has a longstanding enmity with Muslims and especially the Sunnis. The Saudi Arabians still consider themselves real Muslims. They feel that the Iranian people are Parsis to Muslims. Iranians always had enmity with Arabs or Muslims. However, when the Islamic revolution took place in 1979 under the leadership of Iran Ayatollah Khomeini, these Iranians also broke their remaining ancient monuments, temples and statues.