Himalayan Mountains Facts and Passages
The Himalayan Mountains Facts and Passages
Himalayan Mountains Facts and Passages: There are many beautiful but dangerous passages on the Himalayas in India. These passes play a very important role in trade, travel, war and migration. The main pass among these are as follows.
Aafil Pass (Karakoram-Ladakh) Aghil Pass (Karakoram-Ladakh) – about 5306 m north of K 2 in Karakoram range. Situated at an elevation of 5 km, this pass connects Ladakh with Xinjiang (Sikiang) province of China. In winter it is closed from the first week of November to May.
Banihal Pass (Jawahar Tunnel) Banihal Pass (Jawahar Tunnel) – Located in the Pirpanjal range at an altitude of 2832 meters (9291 ft) above sea level, this pass connects Jammu to Srinagar. In winter it is covered with snow. Jawahar Tunnel (named after Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru) was built here to inaugurate road transport throughout the year, which was inaugurated in 1956. Due to which this pass is not used much.
Bar Lapcha (Himalayan regions – Leh and Ladakh)
Jammu and Kashmir is located at an altitude of 4890 meters (16,040 ft) above sea level. It is located on the National Highway connecting Manali to Leh. During the winter season from November to mid-May, it is closed for traffic due to snow cover. The Bhagha River, a tributary of the Chandrabhaga or Chenab River, originates from the Suti floor near Manali. This is the highest pass in the Zaskar category.
Bomadi La Bomdi La (4331 m, Arunachal Pradesh) – Situated in the eastern part of Bhutan in Arunachal Pradesh, this pass is situated at an elevation of 2217 meters (7273 ft) above sea level. It connects Arunachal Pradesh with Lhasa, the capital of Tibet. It remains closed during winter due to adverse weather and snowfall.
Burzail Pass (Srinagar with Kishan-Ganga Valley)
At an altitude of 4,100 meters (13,500 ft) above sea level, Burzil Pass is an ancient road between Kashmir, Gilgit and Srinagar. This pass connects the Kashmir valley to the Devasai plains of Ladakh. Due to snow cover, it remains closed for trade and transport in winter. It is situated on the Line of Control between India and Pakistan.
Chang La Chang-La (Ladakh with Tibet) – 5360 m above sea level. Located at an elevation of (17,590 ft), this pass of the Great Himalayas connects Ladakh with Tibet. This pass lies on the road leading from Leh to Pangong Lake. Which connects to a small town of Tangtse in Tibet. It is named after the Chang-La Baba temple located in this pass. Remains closed during winter due to snow cover. It is the third highest transportable pass in the world, which connects the Indus Valley with the area of Pangong Lake. The Changthang Plateau is known for its high elevation, huge lakes and vast high plains of the Great Himalayas.
Debsa Pass Debsa Pass – 5360 m above sea level. Located at an elevation of (17,590 ft), this pass is situated on the Great Himalayas between the Kullu and Spiti districts of Himachal Pradesh. It is an easy and short distance option as compared to the Pin-Parvati Pass connecting Kullu and Spiti. The beautiful Spiti Valley is a desert mountain land between Tibet and India in the northeastern part of Himachal Pradesh in the Himalayan mountains. This pass passes through the Parvati river valley in Kullu.
Dihang Pass Dihang Pass – This pass is about 1220 m above sea level in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. Is situated at the height of It connects Arunachal Pradesh with Mandalay (Myanmar).
Diphu Pass (Arunachal Pradesh with Mandalay in Myanmar)
This pass is situated at an altitude of 4587 m (15049 ft). Located in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh, this pass provides an easy and shortest route to Mandalay (Myanmar) (compared to Dihang). It is a traditional pass between India and Myanmar, which is open throughout the year for trade and transport. Diphu Pass is near the borders of India, China and Burma, it also has a strategic importance for East Assam.
Imis La Imis La – Located at an elevation of 5271 meters (17293 ft) above sea level, this pass provides an easy way to connect Ladakh with Tibet. This pass with tough terrain and steep slope remains closed due to snow cover in winter.
Khardung La Khardung La – Situated at an altitude of 5602 m (18,380) feet above sea level, this pass is the highest passable in India and possibly the highest in the world. But its height is also disputed. Situated near Leh in Ladakh region, this pass connects the Shyok and Nubra valleys. There are many motorcycle and mountain bike expeditions here. This is also the historical route connecting Kashgar to Leh in Central Asia. The height of Khardong La Pass has been measured at 5,359 m (17,582 ft) with modern techniques.
Khunjerab Pass (Karakoram)
Situated at an altitude of 4,693 meters (15,397 ft) above sea level, this pass in the Karakoram range is a traditional pass connecting Ladakh and China’s Sikyang Province. It is located on the Karakoram mountain in a strategic position, on the south western border of China’s Xinjiang region and on the northern border of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. It remains covered with snow during winter.
Jelep La Jelep La – Jelep La Pass is located in East Sikkim district at an altitude of 4,270 meters (14,009 ft). This pass connects Sikkim to Lhasa. It is situated in the Chumbi valley. It is a very scenic route along the forests of rhododendrons in the Chumbi valley on the Indo-Tibetan plateau.
5466 meters (17933 ft) in Aksai Chin (Ladakh). Situated at an elevation of 4 km, this pass connects Ladakh with Lhasa. China has built a road here. Which connects his Sikyang province to Tibet. Aksai is on the southwestern border of the Chin region. It is also a disputed area between India and China.
Likhapani Lekhapani – 4000 m in Arunachal Pradesh. This state is connected to Myanmar by this pass situated at an altitude higher than. This is a year-long pass for trade and traffic.
Situated at an elevation of 3528 meters (11575 ft) above sea level, this pass connects Srinagar to Kargil and Leh. It remains closed during winters due to excessive snowfall. The Border Roads Organization (BRO) has been trying to keep it open for most of the year. A Beacon Force has also been established by this organization to take care of it and remove snow from it. The Srinagar-Zojila road has been declared as National Highway (NH-1D) by the Central Government. Pakistan had captured this pass in 1948, but surprisingly it was recaptured from the Indian Army under Operation Bison using tanks at such high altitude.
Located in Pithoragarh, this pass connects Uttarakhand with Tibet. Located at an altitude of 5,334 meters (17,500 ft), this pass connects Purang in Tibet to the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand. Pilgrims pass through Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar. It plays an important role in India’s trade with China. Lipu Lekh Pass connects Vyas and Chaudans Valley of Tibet region. Landslides occurring during the rainy season and avalanches during winter are the biggest problems for the transportation system of this pass.
Mana Pass Mana Pass – Situated at an elevation of about 5545 meters (18192 ft) above sea level in the Great Himalayas, this pass connects Uttarakhand with Tibet. It is also considered to be the world’s highest transportable road. It remains snow covered for about 6 months in winter. Mana Pass, 24 km from Mana city within the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. And in Uttarakhand, Hindu pilgrimage is located 27 km north of Badrinath.
Mangsha Dhura Pass
Situated at an elevation of about 5674 meters (18615 ft) above sea level, this pass at Pithoragarh connects Uttarakhand with Tibet. Travelers also have to pass through this pass to visit Mansarovar. Landslides are a major problem for tourists and pilgrims.
Muning La (Uttarakhand) Muning La – This is a seasonal pass situated north of Gangotri, which connects Uttarakhand with Tibet. In winter it is covered with snow and no traffic is possible from here.
Nathu La (Sikkim)
It connects Tibet region with Sikkim on the India-China border. Situated at an elevation of about 4,310 meters (14,140 ft) above sea level, this pass is a branch of the ancient Silk Route. It is one of the three open trade routes between India and China, the other two being Shipki-La located in Himachal Pradesh and Lipulekh in Uttarakhand. India was opened for the first time in 2006 after the China War (1962). The Nathu La Pass is located near important Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimage sites and it covers a wide area of many endangered species such as orchid, snow leopard, Tibetan wolf and black winged eagle.
Niti Pass Niti Pass – 5068 m above sea level. Located at a height of, this pass connects Uttarakhand with Tibet. In winter, it remains closed from November to mid-May due to snow cover. The Dhauliganga River rises from an elevation of 5,070 meters (16,630 ft) from the Niti Pass in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand.
Pangsan Pass (Arunachal Pardesh)
4000 m above sea level. Situated at a higher altitude than this, this pass connects Arunachal Pradesh with Mandalay (Myanmar).
Penji La Pensi La – Situated at an altitude of 4,400 meters (14,436 ft) above sea level, on the east of Joji La Pass, this pass of the great Himalayas connects the Kashmir valley to Kargil (Ladakh). It is known as the gateway to Zanskar. It connects the Zanskar Valley region with the Suru Valley region, during winter it is closed for traffic from November to mid-May due to snow cover. The famous Rangadum Math is about 25 km from here.
Pir-Panjal Pass Pir-Panjal Pass – This traditional pass connecting Jammu to Srinagar is situated on the Mughal Road. Known as Pir Ki Gali, it connects the Kashmir Valley with Rajouri and Poonch via Mughal road. This is the simplest and shortest and surest route connecting Jammu Kashmir with the valley. The highest point of the Mughal road in Pir Ki Gali is about 11500 feet. The nearest town here is Sopian, which is also called the Valley of Apples.
Qara Tagh Pass
Situated at an elevation of about 5295 m (17372 ft) above sea level in the Karakoram mountain range, this pass was a branch of the ancient Silk Road. It remains covered with snow during winters.
Rohtang Pass Rohtang Pass – Situated at an altitude of 3,978 meters (13,051 ft) above sea level, this pass connects the Kullu, Lahul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh. The famous Rohtang Pass is located in the Pir Panjal Range of the Great Himalayas. Border Roads Organization (BRO) has arranged a high quality roadway here. Traffic jams are a common problem due to the heavy movement of military vehicles, buses, trucks and other cargo. This Rohtang Pass opened from May to November, due to icy storms and avalanches, it is difficult to cross it.
Shipki La Shipki La – 4300 m above sea level. Situated at an elevation of more than this, this pass, through the Sutlej Mahakhad (gorge), connects Himachal Pradesh with Tibet. It is located in Kinnaur district in Himachal Pradesh. The Sutlej river coming from Tibet enters India through this pass. This is the third (after Nathu La and Lipulek) pass (Highway 22) for India’s trade with China. It remains covered with snow during winters.
Thang La (Ladakh)
This pass is located in the Ladakh region at an altitude of about 5,328 meters (17,480 ft) above sea level, making it the second highest pass in India after Khardung La.
Trails Pass Traill’s Pass – It is 5212 m above sea level in Pithoragarh and Bageshwar districts of Uttarakhand. (17,100 ft). It is situated between Nanda Devi and Nanda Kot Peaks. Located on the verge of the Pindari glacier, this pass connects the Pindari valley to the Milam valley. It is quite difficult to pass this pass due to steep gradient and contrasting surface.
Borasu Pass Borasu Pass – Borasu Pass is located in the Great Himalaya Mountains at an altitude of 5,450 meters (17,881 ft) near the border with China. It connects Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. Situated at high altitude, this pass was an old trade route between the wonderful Doon Valley and the Kinnaur Valley.
Situated across the Rupin River in Uttarakhand, this pass starts from Dhaula in Uttarakhand and ends at Sangla in Himachal Pradesh. The uninhabited Rupin Pass is situated at an altitude of 4650 meters (15,250 ft) in the great Himalayan ranges and passes through deep dark valleys, icy slopes and areas.
Sela Pass Sela Pass – The frozen Sela Pass is located at an altitude of 4,170 meters (13,680 ft) in Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh. The Sela Pass receives heavy snowfall in winter, but it remains full throughout the year. It connects Tawang to India via Tezpur and Guwahati. It is the entrance to Tawang and the famous Buddhist Tawang Monastery.
Chanshal Pass Chanshal Pass – This pass connects Dodara Quar and Rohru in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh. It is situated at an altitude of 4520 (14,830 ft) meters at the highest mountain peak of Shimla.
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