Grape fertilization management
When and how to apply manure to the grapes – fertilizer requirements of the vineyard.
Before using any method of fertilization, you should consider the soil condition of your farm through a semi-annual or annual soil test. No two farms are the same, nor can anyone advise you the methods of fertilization without considering the soil soil test data, tissue analysis and crop history.
The most commonly used methods of fertilization include composting on the top surface of soil, composting on leaves, and fertilization (incorporation of water-soluble fertilizers inside the irrigation system).
Nowadays, high technology is used in the field under precision agriculture, which gives the growers an opportunity to assess the needs of any particular vine correctly.
According to a general rule, during the initial period of growing the crop, the plant needs more nitrogen to develop the surface of the leaves and for photosynthesis. During fruit development, plants need potassium to produce good-sized grapes. Phosphorus is always needed, as it plays an important role in the communication of nutrients.
In addition, during the early years after transplanting, phosphorus helps in developing a healthy root system of the plant. In many cases, small plants planted in acidic soil are unable to use phosphorus properly. Therefore, many farmers put P2O before planting. Calcium controls the maturity and color of the fruit and is very important for the production of a uniform grape.
Composting is required at the end of winter (February) for the first time. Many farmers plow the field by applying well rotten cow dung manure. A few weeks later, farmers can add urea during the growing period, allowing for a better surface growth of the plant’s leaves. Some growers fertilize nitrogen-based leaves.
Secondly, farmers also add well-balanced granular manure (12 – 10 – 20 (+28) + 2MgO + ΤΕ – 500 kg per hectare – 12 in twelve weeks) during the beginning of the growing period. , So that plants have enough time to slowly absorb those nutrients.
In many cases, growers add KNO3 during fruit ripening. Potassium is believed to help grapes get a dark red color. (Keep in mind that 1 hectare = 2,47 acres = 10.000 square meters and 1 ton = 1000 kg = 2200 lb)
Some farmers use seaweed extract (Ascophyllum nodosum), while other farmers use nano-sized calcium-based fertilizer, especially on alkaline soils. One study showed that the use of nano-sized calcium-based fertilizer significantly increased the growth and chlorophyll concentrations of the leaves of grape vines grown on alkaline soils.
The use of seaweed extract also increases the amount of zinc chlorophyll in grape leaves. You can read more about it here.
The type and amount of fertilizers required in a vineyard depends on many different factors. The type of vineyard and the type of grape, including soil type, age of the plant, training system, environmental conditions, etc. are all important factors. The plant requires different nutrients during different growth stages.
As the plant grows, its potassium requirements also increase, while nitrogen needs are less. During this phase, the plant distributes its nutrients to the fruits to increase the amount of sugars, phenolic and aromatic substances in their fruits.
The time of fertilizing in grape fields also varies. For example, in fields that are not irrigated with wine grapes, some growers prefer to spread the manure gradually into the soil on the surface of the soil during winter. In irrigated vineyards, they use 50% nitrogen and potassium, along with 75% phosphorus and magnesium, to be applied to the soil surface.
Subsequently, they add the remaining nitrogen and phosphorus during the fruiting phase, and the remaining potassium is added 3-4 times. Iron deficiency can be seen in areas where the soil is high in CaCO3. Producers can therefore provide types of keeled iron through fertilization or by spraying on leaves.
Applying fertilizer on the leaves can help us overcome short-term deficiencies faster. However, it generally cannot replace other types of fertilization. The effect of the use of manure on the soil usually lasts longer. Grape fertilization management
However, these are just general patterns that should not be followed without doing your own research. Each farm is different and has different needs. It is important to check the soil condition and pH before using any method of composting. You can consult your local licensed agronomist.
Nutritional deficiency and toxicity in grape vines.
Nitrogen: Along with the lower growth of the plant and significantly smaller grapes, greening in the lower leaves is the most common symptom of nitrogen deficiency in grape vines. On the other hand, due to the high amount of nitrogen ingestion, the growth rate of grape twigs increases and their excessive production, due to which competition increases and the growth of fruits can be stopped.
As a result, we get lower quality fruits with lower sugars, while at the same time, acid content may increase. In addition, Bell’s overdevelopment has other negative consequences. Due to this, too many leaves are produced, and they start climbing each other, due to which the air is not communicated properly. As a result, outbreaks of diseases can occur due to this.
Potassium: Deficiency of potassium is expressed by peripheral and intra-venous greening of leaves. Also, lack of potassium results in very serious production problems. Symptoms include a decline in production, delayed fruit ripening, and small grapes.
Due to this, the amount of sugar in the fruit can also be affected, due to which its commercial value is low. On the other hand, high potassium content may cause a deficiency of other nutrients such as magnesium or zinc as these are competing elements. Grape fertilization management
Boron: Due to boron deficiency many problems arise on grape vine, such as greening on small leaves, cluster of uneven leaves and growth of grapes, decreased fruit production and absence of seeds in fruits.
Magnesium: Magnesium is extremely essential for the synthesis of sugars, which play the most important role in defining the unique sensory receptor characteristics of each grape.
Magnesium deficiency can often be seen due to excess potassium. It is also common in sandy, acidic soil. Its symptoms include haemorrhage and necrosis of leaf edges. Grape fertilization management
Phosphorus: Phosphorus deficiency is not as common as nitrogen deficiency. However, it can often be seen during cold times, in acidic or very alkaline soils, in poor organic matter or in soils rich in iron. Phosphorus deficiency can initially be understood through small red dots on the leaves. Symptoms include a decrease in photosynthesis capacity, decreased fertility and a decrease in fruit production. As a result, grape vines yield lower yields.
Calcium: Calcium deficiency is possible in cases of sandy soils, pH levels less than 5,5 including high drought conditions or high sodium. Unlike other deficiencies, calcium deficiency is evident not on leaves, but on grapes.
Iron: We can see iron deficiency in alkaline soils filled with high levels of copper or manganese. These symptoms appear mainly on the youngest leaves, causing intravenous greening.
Zinc: Zinc deficiency appears mainly on small leaves. They turn yellow, as well as we can see the asymmetry in them (half of the leaf is much smaller and deformed than the other).
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Grape fertilization management