FIVE YEAR PLANS | FIVE YEAR PLANS IN INDIA

FIVE YEAR PLANS IN INDIA

FIVE YEAR PLANS
FIVE YEAR PLANS

FIRST FIVE YEAR PLAN (1951-56)

It was based on Hoerod-Domar model.
Agriculture was the top priority in this along with it’s immediate objectives were the rehabilitation of refugees rapid agricultural development so, as to achieve food sufficiency in the shortest possible time and control the inflation.
To initiate a process of all-round and balanced development to ensure a rising national income and a steady improvement in living standards.

SECOND FIVE YEAR PLAN (1956-61)

Also called “Mahalanobis Plan” after its chief PC Mahalanobis. It was based on Nehru-Mahalanobis model,self-reliance and basic industry growth.
Agriculture target fixed in the first plan almost achieved now major stress was on rapid industrialization.
The basic objective of this was rapid industrialization,particularly basic and heavy industries such as iron and steel,heavy chemicals like nitrogenous,fertilizers,heavy engineering and machine building industry.
Various important large industries like steel plant at Durgapur,Bhilai and Rourkela were established during this plan.
Besides, the industrial Policy of 1958,emphasized the role of public sector and accepted the establishment of a socialistic pattern of the society as the goal of economic policy.

THIRD FIVE YEAR PLAN (1961-66)

Also called,Gadgil Yojana. The main objective of this plan was to make the economy independent and to reach self active take off positions.
In this plan,both agriculture and industry were on its priority.
The other objectives of the plan included the expansion of basic industries,optimum utilization of country’s labour power and reducing the inequalities of income and wealth.
The plan was a complete failure due to unforeseen misfortunes i.e.,Chinese aggression (1962),Indo-Pak War (1965),severest drought in 100 years (1965-66).
A growing trade deficit and mounting debt obligations led to more and more borrowing from the International Monetary Fund (IMF).The rupees was devalued in June 1966.
Hence,the third plan was a complete failure in every respect.

ANNUAL PLAN(PLAN HOLIDAY) (FROM 1966-67 TO-1968)

  1. The three annual plans were 1966-67,1968-69.
  2. The miserable failure of the third plan and difficulties in external front (1962 of China 1965 of Pakistan war),and the economic troubles on the domestic economy-inflation,floods,crisis,etc. led to government to declare ‘plan holiday’.
  3. The prevailing crisis in agriculture and serious food shortage necessitated the emphasis on agriculture during the Annual Plans.
  4. During these plans a whole new agricultural strategy involving wide-spread distribution of High-Yielding Varieties (HVVs) of seeds,soil conservation was put into action to tide over the crisis in agriculture production.
  5. During the Annual Plans, the economy basically absorbed the shocks given during the Third Plan,making way for a planned growth.

FOURTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1969-74)

The two main objectives of this plan were ‘Growth With Stability’ and ‘Progressive Achievement of Self Reliance’.
“Growth with Justice” and ‘Garibi Hatao’ (Removal of Poverty) were the main objectives of the plan.
Fared well in the first two years with record production.The last three years were a failure because of poor monsoon.
Had to tackle the influx of Bangladeshi refugees before and after 1971 Indo-Pak War.

FIFTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1974-79)

The plan was prepared and launched by DP Dhar and was proposed to achieve two main objectives ‘Removal of Poverty’ and ‘Attainment of Self Reliance’ through promotion of high rate of growth,better distribution of income and a very significant growth in the domestic rate of savings.
The plan was terminated in 1978(before the completion of one year ) when Janta Government came to power.

ROLLING PLAN (1978-1t980)

The Janta Party came to power in 1977 and their plan is known as ‘Rolling Plan’.
The focus of the plan was enlargement of the employment potential in agriculture and allied activities,encouragement to household and small industries producing consumer goods to consumption and to raise the incomes of the lowest income classes through minimum needs programme.

SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1980-85)

Removal of Poverty were the main objectives of plan.The plan aimed at achieving economic and technological self reliance,reducing poverty,generating employment,improving quality of life,population control through family planning.
During this period,the Indian economy made all round progress and most of the targets were realized.

SEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1985-90)

The seventh plan emphasized policies and programmes. which aimed at rapid growth in food grains production,increased employment opportunities and productivity within the framework of basic tenants of planning.
In this plan,for the first time,private sector was given priority in comparison to public sector.Several employment generating programmes like Jawahar Rozgar Yojana were started.

ANNUAL PLANS (1990-92)

In 1990-91 and 1991-92,two separate annual plans,were formulated.The main objective was a maximization of employment and social transformation.

EIGHT FIVE YEAR PLAN (1992-97)

The plan was approved at a time when the country was going through a several economic crisis,a rising debt burden,even widening budget deficits,mounting inflation and recession in the industry.
The plan was based on “Rao-Monmohan” model and undertook various drastic policy measures to combat the bad economic situation.The plan was formulated in view of restructuring the economic and economic reforms.
Liberalization,privatization and globalization were adopted as the economic reforms.
Some of the main economic performances during this plan were rapid economic growth,high growth of agriculture and allied sector and manufacturing sector,growth in exports and imports,improvement in trade and current account deficit.
The most notable feature of the Eight Plan was that GDP grew at an average rate of 6.8% exceeding the target growth rate of 5.6%.

NINTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1997-2002)

The focus of this plan was ‘Growth with Social Justice and Equity’.
It was developed in the context of four important dimensions quality of life,generation of productive employment,regional balance and self-reliance.
Growth rate of GDP during the plan was 5.4% as against the target 6.5% agriculture grew at 2.1% against 4.2% per annum,industrial growth grew at 4.5% as against the target of 3% per annum and services grew at 7.8% per annum.

TENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2002-2007)

In this plan,it was proposed that the rate of 8% reduction of poverty ratio to 20% by 2007 and to 10% by 2012,and to double the per capita income in next 10 years.
Universal access to primary education by 2007.
Reduction in decadel growth rate between 2001 to 2011 of 16.2%.
The plan laid great emphasis on agriculture since growth in this sector is likely to lead to the widest dissemination of benefits,especially to the rural poor including agricultural labour.
The growth strategy of the Tenth Plan seeks to ensure the rapid growth of those sectors which are most likely to create high quality employment opportunities,which included entertainment,IT enabled services etc.
Gross Domestic Savings averaged 28.2% in Tenth Plan as against 23.1% in the Ninth Plan.India’s foreign exchange reserve reached a level of US $ 185 billion in 2007.

ELEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2007-2012)

The plan envisages an average 9% GDP growth in the first four year,at the end of five year period,with a growth of 10%.
In this plan,twenty seven targets have been proposed at the national and thirteen at the state level with regard to poverty eradication,education,health status of women and children,infrastructure and environment.
The thrust of the plan document is social sectors,agriculture and rural development.

NATIONAL TARGETS TO THE ELEVENTH PLAN
Income and Poverty

GDP growth at 9% per annum,increase it to 90% at the end of the plan and in the Twelfth Plan,maintain the 10% growth and in order to double per capita income by 2016-17.
Increases agriculture GDP growth rate of 4% per year to ensure a border spread of benefits.
Create 70 million new work opportunities.
Reduce educated unemployment to below 5%.
Raise real wage rate of unskilled workers by 20%.

EDUCATION

Reduce dropout rates of children from elementary school from 52.2% in 2003-04 to 10% by 2011-12.
Increase literacy rate for persons of age 7 years or more to 85%.
Lower gender gap in literacy to 10% points.
Increase the  percentage of each cohort going to higher education from the present 10% to 15% by the end of the Eleventh Plan.

HEALTH

Provide clear drinking water for all by 2009 and ensure that there are no slip-backs by the end of the Eleventh Plan.
Reduces Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to twenty eight and Material Mortality Rate (MMR) to one per 1000 live births.
It Reduce total fertility to 2:1.
Reduce malnutrition among children of age group 0 to 3 to half its present level.
And Reduce anemia among women and girls by 50% by the end of Eleventh Plan.

WOMEN AND CHILDREN

Raise the sex ratio for age group 0-6 to 935 by 2011-12 and 950 by 2016-17.
Ensure that at least 33% of the direct and indirect beneficiaries of all government schemes are women and girl children.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Ensure electricity connection to all villages and BPL households by 2009 and round the clock power by the end of the plan.
Ensure all weather road connection to all habitation with population,1000 and above (500 in hilly and tribal areas)by 2009,and ensure coverage of all significant habitation by 2015.
Connect every village by telephone by November 2007 and provide broadband connectivity to all villages by 2012.
Provide homestead sites to all 2012 and set up the pare of house construction for rural poor to cover all the poor by 2016-17.

ENVIRONMENT AND TREE

Increase every forest and tree cover by 5% points.
Attain WHO standards of air quality in all major cities by 2011-12.
Treat all urban water by 2011-12 to clean river waters.
Increase energy efficiency by 20% points by 2016-17.

TWELFTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2012-2017)

The draft approach to the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) has been approved by the NDC. The theme of the approach paper is “faster, sustainable and more inclusive growth”.
The approach paper lays down a growth target of 9 p%.
Emphasis is an inclusive development which focuses on agriculture and crucial social sectors including education, health, women and children. There is also emphasis on strengthening institutions and delivery mechanism that takes the benefits of high growth to the poor.
Health, education and skill development continues to be focus areas in the Twelfth Plan ensuring adequate resources to these sectors.

THIRTEENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2017-2022)

The ten objectives for the 13th five-year plan includes “maintaining economic growth, transforming patterns of economic development, optimizing the industrial structure, promoting innovation-driven development, accelerating agricultural modernization, reforming institutional mechanisms, promoting coordinated .
FIVE YEAR PLANS IN INDIA

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