CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY OF INDIA

The Constitution of India the idea of a constituent assembly for India was put forward for the first time in 1934 by MN Roy, a pioneer of communist movement in India.
In 1935, the Indian National Congress (INC) for the first time officially demanded a Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution.
The demand for Constituent Assembly of was finally accepted by the British Government in the form of “August Proposal of 1940”. With the proposal, British Government recognized that Indians should frame a new Constitution for autonomous India.
In 1942, Sir Stafford Cripps, a member of the British Cabinet came to India, with a draft proposal of the British Government.The draft proposed that the Constitution of India was to be framed by an elected Constituent Assembly of India people.The draft proposals were to be adopted provided the two major political parties, the Congress and the Muslim League could come to an agreement, but it failed and the proposals were rejected.
After the rejection of the Cripps Proposals several attempts were made to reconcile the two parties, including Simla Conference. It is also known as Wavell Plan which was announced on 14 June 1945.Under this plan, the Interim Government would work for the framing of the new Constitution.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens.

CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY OF INDIA~GENERAL STUDIES 4 U
CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY OF INDIA

INTERIM GOVERNMENT (1946)

The members of the interim Government were the members of the Viceroy’s Executive Council. The Viceroy continued to be the head of the council. Jawaharlal Nehru was designated as the Vice-President of the Council.

The Cabinet Mission was sent to India, following the failure of Lord Wavell (Simla Conference) Plan.The Cabinet Mission consisted. Stafford Crips, AV Alexander, Lord Pethick Lawrence as its members. But these, proposals too failed in making the two major parties come to any agreement. However, the Constituent Assembly was set up under this Mission in November, 1946.

FRAMING OF THE CONSTITUTION

Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee
Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee
 
MAJOR COMMITTEES
CHAIRMEN
Drafting Committee
Dr BR Ambedkar
Members
N Gopalswami  Ayyangar
AK Ayyar
KM Munshi
Mohammed Sadullah
BL Mittar
DP Khaitan
Union Power Committee
Jawaharlal Nehru
Union Constitution Committee
Jawaharlal Nehru
Provincial Constitution Committee
Sardar Patel
Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights and Minorities
Sardar Patel
Rules of Procedure Committee
Dr Rajendra Prasad
States Committee
Jawaharlal Nehru
Steering Committee
Dr Rajendra Prasad
Special Committee to examine the Draft Constitution
Sir Alladi Krishna Swamy Iyer

CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY 

Indian Constitution was framed by a Constituent Assembly,which was constituted in November 1956, under the scheme formulated by the Cabinet Mission Plan.

There were a total of 389 members in the Constituent Assembly, of which 296 seats were elected by the members of Provincial Assemblies, 93 nominated from the princely states (these included Madras, Mumbai, UP, Bihar, Central Provinces, Orissa, PUnjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh ,Bengal and Assam) and 4 Nominated from the chief commissioner areas. (these included Delhi, Ajmer-Marwar, Coorg and British Baluchistan).

The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 9 December 1946, with Sachidanand Sinha as the interim President. Later, on 11 December 1946, Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected as permanent President of the Assembly. The Muslim League boycotted the first meeting and insisted on a separate state of Pakistan. HC Mukherjee and BN Rao were elected as the Vice-President and Constitutional Adviser to the Assembly respectively.

The historic “Objective Resolution” was moved in the Constituent Assembly by Jawaharlal Nehru on 13 December 1946.It laid down the fundamentals and philosophy of the Constitution’s structure. This resolution was unanimously adopted by the Assembly on January 22, 1947.

The Constituent Assembly formed 22 important committees to deal with the different tasks of Constitution making.

Among these, the Drafting Committee was important one that was appointed in August 1947, with Dr BR Ambedkar as its Chairman.

Dr Ambedkar is rightly regarded as the Father of the Constitution of India.

In all, the Constituent Assembly had 11 sessions. Over two years, 11 months and 18 days, the Assembly had gone through the Constitution of 60 Countries.

On January 24,1950, the Constituent Assembly held its final session, It was held to elect Dr Rajendra Prasad as the President of India.

The Constitution was adopted on November 26,1949 and came into full operation with effect from 26 January 1950.

Originally the Constitution had 22 Parts, 395 Articles and 8 Schedules.

CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

  1. Lengthiest Written Constitution.
  2. Drawn from different sources.
  3. Blend of rigidity and flexibility.
  4. Federal system with unitary bias.
  5. Parliamentary form of Government with an elected President at the head.
  6. Synthesis of Parliamentary sovereignty and Judicial B supremacy.
  7. Independent and single judiciary.
  8. Fundamental Rights.
  9. Directive Principles of State Policy.
  10. Fundamental Duties.
  11. Single Citizenship.
  12. Universal Adult Franchise.
  13. Emergency Provisions.
  14. Division of Power between Center and the States.
  15. Three-tier Government (Centre, State and Panchayat).
  16. Integration of India States.

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