A computer is a device that can be instructed to automatically complete a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations through computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform highly detailed tasks.

Super Computer

Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes microwave ovens and remote controls, factory equipment such as industrial robots and simple special-purpose devices such as computer-aided design, and general-purpose devices such as personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones.

Computers were born not for entertainment or email, but to solve a serious number-one crisis. By 1880, the US population had become so large that it took more than seven years to tabulate the results of the US Census. The government promoted punch-card based computers, but its size was large, which was reduced as it developed.



The history of the computer is about 3000 years old. When the calculating machine Abacus was invented in China, it is a mechanical device that was still used to calculate digits in many countries of Asia including China, Japan. Abacus is a frame of wires. These wires contain threads of beaded (baked clay shells). Initially, Abacus was used by traders in calculating, this machine is used to add, subtract, multiply and divide the digits.

Blase pascal

Baize Pascal

Many other mechanical machines were developed for calculating digits after centuries. A mechanical digital calculator was developed in 1645 by the French mathematician Baize Pascal in the 17th century. This machine was called the Adding Machine because it could only add or subtract. This machine worked on the principle of clock and odometer. It had many toothed wheels that used to rotate, the teeth of the chakras were numbered from 0 to 9, each cycle had a local value like the – unit, tens, hundreds, etc. It used to rotate a circle. After the second cycle, this Adding Machine of Blase Pascal was also called Pascaline.

Jacquard’s Loom

Jacquard’s Loom

In 1801, Joseph Jacquard, the French weaver, invented a loom of weaving which controlled the design or pattern in the fabric with punchy punchcards of cardboard. The specialty of this loom was that it controlled the fabric pattern with cardboard punched punchcards and the threads were guided by the presence or absence of the pictures on the punchcard.

Charles Babbage

Difference Engine

The 19th century is considered the golden age of early times in the history of computers. The British mathematician Charles Babbage felt the need to develop a mechanical calculating machine when the error in the arrays used for calculating, since these tables were hand-set, so error came in it.

Charles Babbage built a machine in 1822, which was borne by the British government. The machine was named the Difference Engine, the machine was equipped with gears and soft. It used to run on steam. In 1833, Charles Babbage developed an Analytical Engine, a developed form of Different Engine, which was a very powerful machine. Babbage has been a major contributor to the development of computers. Babbage’s analytical engine became the basis of modern computer and this is the reason why Charles Babbage is called the father of computer science.

Dr. Howard Aiken’s Mark-I

Electrical Mechanical Computer

Electrometrical Computing reached its peak in 1940. Four top engineers of the IBM and Dr. Howard Aiken developed a machine in 1944. It was the world’s first “electrical mechanical computer” and its official name– Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator maintained. Then it was sent to Harvard University in February 1944 which was received on 7 August 1944 in the University. It was named Mark-I in this university. It could do 1 Multiplication in 6 seconds and 1 Division 12 seconds.

A.B.C. (Atanasoff – Berry Computer)

In 1945, Atanasoff and Clifford Berry developed an electronic machine named ABC. ABC is the abbreviation for the word Atanasoff Berry Computer. ABC was the first electronic digital computer.

Atanasoff Berry Computer


Types of Computer

Three types depending on usage

  1. Analog computer
  2. Digital computer
  3. Hybrid computer

Depending on the size, it can be divided into the following types

  1. Smartphone
  2. Microcomputer
  3. Workstation
  4. Personal computer
  5. Laptop
  6. Minicomputer
  7. Mainframe computer
  8. Supercomputer
  9. Tablet computer

Input devices

When unprocessed data is sent to the computer with the help of input devices, the data is processed and sent to output devices. The input devices may be hand-operated or automated. The act of processing is mainly regulated by the CPU. 

  • Computer keyboard
  • Digital camera
  • Digital video
  • Graphics tablet
  • Image scanner
  • Joystick
  • Microphone
  • Mouse
  • Overlay keyboard
  • Real-time clock
  • Trackball
  • Touchscreen

Output Devices

  • Computer monitor
  • Printer
  • PC speaker
  • Projector
  • Sound card
  • Video card


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