INTRODUCTION

Classification of Plants and Animals means the ordering of organisms into groups.The branch of science dealing with the principles and procedures of biological classification is called Taxonony (Carolus Linnaeus is the father).The categories used in classification of Plants and Animals are:Kingdom,Phylum,Class,Order,Family,Genus and Species.

It is necessary to classify organisms because: Classification of Plants and Animals allows us to understand diversity better. Which helps in the identification of living organisms as well as in understanding the diversity of living organisms. And enables us to understand how complex organisms evolve from simpler organisms.

CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS

THE LIVING WORLD

Genus and species defined by John Ray.
The smallest unit of classification is species.
“Systema Naturae” and “Species Plantarum” books written by Carolus Linnaeus.
Binomial nomenclature given by Linnaeus is the system of nomenclature using two terms,the first indicating the genus and the second the species.
ICBN-International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
ICZN-International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Tobacco mosaic virus was the first virus to be crystallized by Stanley in 1935.
Single stranded DNA virus.
Single stranded RNA virus-Tobacco Mosaic Virus.
HIV (Human Immune Deficiency virus) causes AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
Virus infecting bacteria called as bacteriophages.
It was discovered by Twort and Herelle.

e.g., T2 bacteriophage.

Plasmids are extra chromosomal rings of DNA; contain non-vital genes.
Plasmids+Nucleoid →Episomes.
E coli-Rod-shaped bacteria.
Nostoc shows symbiotic association with Anthoceros and Cycas.
Anabaena shows symbiotic association with Azolla.

CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS
CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS

FUNGI

Stored food material is glycogen. Cell wall made up of chitin. Puccinia graminis tritici-Black rust of wheat.
e.g., Albugo candida-White rust of crucifers. Rhizopus stolonifer-fumatic acid Aspergillus Produces aflatoxin (natural mycotoxin) Agaricus-Mushroom lichens-Symbiotic relationship between algae and fungi. Litmus is produced from lichens. These are indicators of pollutions.

ALGAE-AQUATIC IN NATUREV

ascular tissue (xylem and phloem) are absent.
e.g., Chlorella used as component of sewage oxidation tanks.
e.g., Chlorella used as component of sewage oxidation tanks.
Antibiotic chlorellin is obtained from Gelidium and Gracilaria. Spirogyra is also called as pond silk.

THE PLANTS ARE GENERALLY CLASSIFIED AS BRYOPHYTA

Bryophyta are emphibians of the plant kingdom. Vascular tissue generally absent. Present in damp and shady places.
e.g., Riccia, Marchantia, FanariaZoopis is smallest bryophytes.
Dawsonia is largest moss. Sphagnum is employed for dressing of wound. Pteridophytes, gymnosperms,angiosperms are vascular plants (xylem and phloem are present).

PTERIDOPHYTES

These are seedless vascular plant. Secondary growth is absent.
e.g., Seloginella, Equisetum, Dryopteris (male shield fern) Azolla, Marsilea, Salvinia are aquatic fern, Adiantum (maiden hair fern), Cyathium (tree fern).

GYMNOSPERMS

The term ‘Gymnosperm’ comes froma Greek word gymnosperms, meaning naked seed. Rhynia (most primitive member). Gymnosperms do not have outer covering around their seed. Pollination type is anemophily (pollination by wind).
e.g., Cycas (Sagopalm)
Nostoc/Anbaena shows symbiotic association with Cycas most primitive gymnosperm.Pinus-Resin and terpentine  obtained from pinus chiloza is obtained from pinus. Ginkgo (maiden hair tree) -Living fossil.Ephedra-Drug ephedrine obtained from the stem of Ephedra.Sequoia gigantia (red wood tree), tallest ( Largest tree, gymnosperm,in term of total volume).

ANGIOSPERM

There are seed bearing, flowering vascular plants. Seeds are enclosed in fruits. Double fertilization takes place in angiosperm.
e.g., Mustard plant (Brassica campestris).

CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS

Storer and Usinger classified animals into following phylums.

PHYLUM-PROTOZOA

These are unicellular animals, i.e., made up of only one cell. In these all the metabolic activity like digestion, respiration,excretion and reproduction takes place in unicellular body.

Respiration and excretion take place through diffusion.Example Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, etc.

PHYLUM-PORIFERA

These all are found in marine water and have porous body.The pores are called ostia.Their skeleton is made up of minute calcareous or silicon spicules.Example-Sycon, Sponge, etc.

CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS
CLASSIFICATION OF  ANIMALS

 

PHYLUM-COELENTERATA

These are aquatic animals have thread-like structures called tentacles around the mouth which help in holding the food.The have specialized snidoblast cell to help in catching the food.Example-Hydra,Jelly fish, Sea anemone, etc.Hydra has a tendency of regeneration of body organs.

PHYLUM-PLATYHELMINTHES

Animals of this phylum have alimentary canal with single opening, anus is absent.Excretion takes place by flame cells.There is no skeleton, respiratory organ, circulatory system, etc.These are hermaphrodite animal.Example-Planaria, Liver fluke, Tape worm,etc.

PHYLUM-ASCHELEMINTHES

These are long cylindrical, unsegmented worm. Their alimentary canal is complete in which mouth and anus both are present. There is no circulatory and respiratory systems but nervous system is developed. Excretion takes place through protonephridia. They are unisexual. Most form are parasitic but some are free living in soil and water.
Example-Ascaris,Thread worm, etc.
Thread worm is found mainly in the anus of child. Children feel itching and often vomits. Some children urinate on the bed at night.

PHYLUM-ANNELIDA

Their body is long, thin soft and metamerically segmented.Alimentary canal is well-developed.Nervous system is normal and blood is red.They respire through skin, in some animals it takes place through coelom, Excretion by nephridia.They move through setae made up of chitin.Example Earthworm, Nereis, Leech, etc.Earthworm has four pairs of hearts.

PHYLUM-ANTHROPODA

Joined leg is their main feature. Their body is divided into three parts-Head thorax and abdomen. Circulatory system is open type. Cockroach’s heart has 13 chambers. Trachea, book lungs, body surface are respiratory organs.
Example- Cockroach,Prawn,Crab,Bug,Fly,Mosquito,Bees, etc.
Insects generally have six feet and four wings. Ant is a social animal which reflects labour division. Termite is also a social animal which lives in colony.

PHYLUM-MOLLUSCA

Their body is soft divided into head and muscular foot.Mantle is always presents in it, which secretes a hard calcareous shell.Their alimentary canal is well-developed.Respiration takes place through gills or ctenidia.Blood is colourless.Example–Pila, Aplysi (Sea rabbit), Doris (Sea lemon), Octopus (devil-fish), Sepia (Cuttle-fish).

PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA

All the animals in this group are marine.They have water vascular system.Brain is not developed in nervous system.They have a special capacity of regeneration.Examples-Star fish, Sea urchin, Sea cucumber, etc.

PHYLUM-CHORDATA

They have notochord. A dorsal hollow tubular nerve cord and paired pharyngeal gill slits. This phylum is sub-divided into two sub-phylum.
i.e., Protochordes and Vertebrata.
Some main groups of phylum-Chordata are:

PISCES

These are aquatic animal (cold-blooded animals).Their heart pumps only impure blood and have two chambers.Respiration takes place through gills.Example-Hippopotamus, Scoliodon, Torpedo, etc.

AMPHIBIA

These are found both on land and water. All these are cold-blooded. Respiration takes place through gill,skin and lungs.Examples-Frog, Necturus, Toad, Icthyophis, Saiamander.

REPTILIA

These are crawling animals. These are cold blood and contains two pair of limbs. The sleleton is completely flexible. Respiration takes place through lungs. Their eggs are covered with shell made up of calcium carbonate.
Example-Lizard, Snake, Tortoise, Crocodile, Turtle, Sphendon, etc.
Cobra is the only snake which makes nests. Heloderma is the only poisonous lizard. Sea snake is also called Hydrophis. It is the world’s most poisonous snake.

AVES

The animals of this groups are warm-blooded tetrapod vertebrates with flight adaptation. Their fore-feet are modified into wings to fly. They respire through lungs.Birds have no teeth, beak helps in feeding. Example-Crow,Peacock,Parrot, etc.
1.Flightless birds are Kiwi and Emu.
2.Largest alive bird is Ostrich.
3.Smallest bird is Humming bird.
4.Largest zoo in India is Alipur (Kolkata) and the largest zoo of the world is Cruiser National Park in South Africa.

MAMMALIA

These are warm-blooded animals.Tooth comes twice in these animal.(diphyodont).There is no nucleus in its red blood cells (except in camel and Ilama).Skin of Mammal have hair. External ear is present.Mammals are divided into three sub-classes:
a. Prototheria It lays eggs, e.g., Echidna.
b. Metatheria It bears the immature child, e.g., Kangaroo.
c. Eutheria It bears the well developed child,e.g.,humans.
They give birth to young once but Echidna and duck billed platypus are the egg laying mammals.
Classification of Plants and Animals.

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