Cherokee–American wars

Cherokee American wars

Cherokee American wars

The Chickamauga War (1776–1794) was a series of back-and-forth raids, campaigns, ambushes, minor skirmishes, and several full-scale frontier battles that were fought between the Cherokee (“Ani-Yunwia”, “Ani-Kituwa”, “Ani-Kituwa”). Tslagi”, “Tallegwey”) struggle against encroachment into their territory by American frontier peoples from former British colonies, and their contribution to the war effort as British allies, until the end of the American Revolution.

After 1786, he also fought with and with members of the Western Union.

In the summer of 1776 open warfare broke out between Cherokee led by Dragging Canoe (a group first called “Chickamauga” or “Chickamauga-Cherokee” by colonists, and later “Lower Cherokee”) and border settlers with the Watauga. The Holston, Nolichuki and Doe Rivers in Vale, East Tennessee. It later spread along the Cumberland River in central Tennessee and Kentucky, as well as the colonies (later states) of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, the Province of North Carolina, the Province of South Carolina, and the Province of Georgia.

The early phase of these conflicts, ending with the Treaties of 1777, is sometimes called the “Second Cherokee War”, a reference to the earlier Anglo-Cherokee War. Since Dragging Cano (Tsyugunsini) was the dominant leader in both phases of the conflict, it would be more accurate to refer to this period as “Draging Cano’s War”.

Dragging Cano and his warriors to the south and old north-west along with and with Indians of several other tribes (often the Muskogee [Muskokulke] in the former and the Shawnee [Sawanwa] in the latter); first, received the support of the British (often with the participation of British agents and regular soldiers), and, second, the Spanish; and was a founding member of the Native American Western Union.

Although the Americans used “Chickamauga” as a label to define the Cherokee followers of Dragging Canoe, as distinct from the Cherokee who adhered to the peace treaties of 1777, there was never a distinct term of “Chickamauga”. There was no tribe.

 

Richard Fields, a mixed-race man, explained this to Brother Steiner, a Moravian missionary, when the latter met with him at the Tellico blockhouse.

Prelude

If scholar James Mooney is correct, the Cherokee’s first conflict with the British occurred in 1654 when an army from the Jamestown Settlement, supported by a large party from Pamanke, attacked a town in “Racherian”. (The settlement was recorded as the “Rikohkan” German traveler James Lederer when they passed in 1670.) Although the British had about 600–700 Pamanki warriors, the Cherokee repulsed them.

Mooney reports that the last Cherokee town to live in the Upper Ohio region was destroyed in 1708, with its people moving south to join their fellow aborigines.

 

When the Province of Carolina first began trading with the Cherokee in the late 17th century, their westernmost settlements were the twin cities of Great Tellico (Talikawa Agwa) and Chatuga (Tsatsugi) at the present site of the Tellico Plains of Tennessee.

After siding with the Province of South Carolina in the Tuscarora War of 1711–1715, the Cherokee replaced their former British allies in the Yamasi War of 1715–1717. In between, they turned against their former allies Yamasi, which ensured the latter’s defeat.

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Anglo-Cherokee War

At the outbreak of the French and Indian War (1754–1763), the Cherokee were staunch allies of the British, participating in such far-flung campaigns as Fort Duquesne (in modern-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) and the Shawnee of the Ohio Country. In 1755, a band of 130-strong Cherokee under Ostenko (Ustanakawa) of Tomotli (Tamali) took up residence in a fortified town at the mouth of the Ohio River at the behest of fellow British allies, the Iroquois (Houdenosouni).

For many years, French agents from Fort Toulouse had been visiting overhill Cherokee, particularly on the Hivasi and Tellico rivers, and had built roads in those places.

 

The strongest pro-French sentiment among Cherokee came from Mankiller (Utsidihi) of Great Tellico (Talikwa), Old Caesar of Chatuga (Tsutgi) and Raven (Kalanu) of Great Hivasi (Ayuhwasi Agwa). Pursuing Turkey (Kanagatuko; called ‘Old Hop’ by Europeans), was the nation’s first beloved man (uku), or very pro-French, as was his nephew Standing Turkey (Kunagadoga), who died after his death in 1760. was successful. .

In 1759 a Muskogee group under a chief named Big Mortar (Yayatustanej) captured the former site of Kusa. It was long uninhabited since the Spanish discovery in the 16th century. He recaptured the site in support of his pro-French Cherokee allies at Great Tellico and Chatuga.

 

This occupation was also a step towards alliances with other Muskogee, Cherokee, Shawnee, Chickasaw (Chickasasha) and Catawba (Nye) warriors. His plans were the first of their kind in the South, and set the stage for the alliances that Dragging Canoe would later form.

After the end of the French and Indian War, Big Mortar became Muskogee’s leading flagship.

 

The Anglo-Cherokee War was started in 1758 by Moytoy (Amo-Adwehi) of Citico in the midst of the Seven Years’ War (known in the colonies as the French and Indian Wars). He was protesting the British and colonial mistreatment of Cherokee warriors. The war lasted from 1758 to 1761.

 

During its course, Cherokee hostages were murdered at Fort Prince George near Keowie (Kiawi), and other Cherokee massacred the garrison of Fort Loudoun near Chhota (Itati).

Those two linked events pushed the entire Cherokee nation into war until the fighting ended in 1761. The Cherokee were led by the small (Itati) chief of the Okonostota (Agunstata); Attakullakulla (Atagulagalu) of Tennessee (Tanasi); Tomotli’s Ostenako; Wauhachi (Vytsi) of the Lower Cities; and round o of central cities.

 

Peace between the Cherokee and the colonies was sealed by separate treaties with the Colony of Virginia (Treaty of Long-Island-on-the-Holston, 1761) and the Province of South Carolina (Treaty of Charlestown, 1762). The permanent Turkey was deposed and replaced by the pro-British Attakullakullah.

John Stuart, the only officer to survive the Fort Loudoun Massacre, became British Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern District of Charlestown, South Carolina. He served as the Cherokee’s main liaison with the British government.

 

His first deputy, Alexander Cameron, lived among them, first at Keowie, then at Toqua (Dakwei) on the Little Tennessee River. His second deputy, John McDonald, drove a hundred miles to the southwest on the west side of the Chickamauga River, where it was crossed by the Great Indian Warpath.

During the war, British forces under General James Grant destroyed several major Cherokee cities, which were never recaptured. These were most notably the Kituwa, whose residents moved west and took up residence in Great Island Town on the Little Tennessee River between the overhill Cherokee.

 

After the Seven Years’ War, France ceded the Mississippi River and that part of Canada’s Louisiana Territory to the British in defeat. Spain took control of Louisiana west of the Mississippi in exchange for the handover of La Florida to Great Britain. The British created the jurisdictions of East Florida and West Florida.

 

Considering the recent war and following the diplomatic visit of Henry Timberlake and three Cherokee leaders to London: Ostenko, Standing Turkey, and Wood Pigeon (Ata-wei), King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763. This restricted colonial settlement in the west. The Appalachian Mountains, in an effort to preserve the area for Native Americans. Many of the colonies resisted any interference with their campaigns in the West, and the declaration was a major hitch that contributed to the American Revolution.

Treaty of Fort Stanwix

After the Battle of Pontiac (1763–1764), the Iroquois Confederacy ceded their claims of hunting grounds between the Ohio and Cumberland Rivers to the British government, which they and other Indians referred to as Ken-Tuck-A (Kentucky). was known, to which several other tribes from the north and south also claim in the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix.

 

Lands in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes regions (Illinois Country or, formerly, Upper Louisiana), meanwhile, were later known to the fledgling independent US government as the Northwest Territories, originally as a British colony. What was planned was to be called Charlotteiana.

However, plans for the new colony were thwarted by Royal Proclamation, and in 1774 the land became part of the Province of Quebec. However, these events started much of the conflict that ensued in the years to come.

Watauga Association

The earliest colonial settlement in the area around what would become Upper East Tennessee was Sapling Grove, the first of the North-of-Holston (river) settlements, founded by Evan Shelby, who purchased the land from John Buchanan in 1768. . Another on the Nolichuki River and John Carter became known as Carter’s Valley (between the Clinch River and Beech Creek) in 1771. After the Battle of the Alamense in 1771, James Robertson led a group of some twelve or thirteen regulatory families from the north. Carolina to the Watauga River.

All of these groups believed that they were within the territorial limits of the Virginia Colony. After a survey proved his mistake, Alexander Cameron, Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs, ordered him to leave. However, Attakullakulla, now the first beloved, mediated on his behalf, and he was allowed to remain, provided there were no further encroachments.

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In May 1772, the Watauga settlers signed the Watauga Compact to form the Watauga Association, and despite the fact that other settlements were not parties to it, they are all sometimes lumped together as “Wataugans”. .

The following year, in 1773, in response to an earlier attempt by a group under Daniel Boone, Shawnee, Lenape (Delaware), Mingo (Mingway) and some Cherokee to establish a permanent settlement inside Kentucky’s hunting grounds, a Scouting attack The Cairn and Fodder Party, which included Boone’s son James (who was captured and put to death along with Henry Russell), began at the Battle of Dunmore (1773–1774).

Henderson Purchase

A year later, in 1775, a group of North Carolina speculators led by Richard Henderson negotiated the Treaty of Watauga at Sycamore Shoals with Old Overhill Cherokee leaders, chief among whom were Oconostota and Attacullaculla, who ceded Cherokee claims to Kane. surrendered to The Tak-e (Ganda-Gigai) land and is believed to give ownership to the Transylvania Land Company despite claims to the area by other tribes such as the Lenape, Shawnee and Chickasaw.

 

The chief of Great Island Town (Emoyligwei) and dragging Cano, son of Attaculkulla, refused to go through with the deal and said to the people of North Carolina, “You’ve bought a fair land, but there’s a cloud hanging over it; You will find his settlement dark and bloody.”

 

However, the Watauga Treaty was quickly rejected by the governors of Virginia and North Carolina, and Henderson had to flee to avoid arrest. Even George Washington raised his voice against it. The Cherokee appealed to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, John Stuart, for help, which they had previously provided on such occasions, but the outbreak of the American Revolution intervened.

 

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