Babar (AD 1526-1530)
- The Mughal empire was founded by Zahiruddin Muhammad Babar. He was a turk.
- In 1523, the Invitation came from Daulat Khan Lodi, the Governor of Punjab and Alam Khan, uncle of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi of Delhi to Invade India.
- The defeat of Ibrahim Lodi in the first Battle of Panipat in April 1526. Babar possessed a large part of artillery, a new kind of weapon coming into use in Europe and Turkey.
- Defeated the Rana of Mewar, Sangram Singh or Rana Sanga, who was the greatest Rajput prince of the period. Consequently a decisive battle the Battle of Khanua took place on March 16, 1527, at Khanua.
- Defeated Rajput Chief Medini Rai (or Chanderi) in the Battle of Chanderi in 1528.
- Defeated the Afghan Chiefs under Mahmud Lodi in the Battle of Ghaghrai in Bihar in 1529.
- The ‘Charbaghs’, the symmetrically laid out gardens with flowing waters and fountains were introduced in India by Babar.
- He wrote his autobiography Turuk-i-Baburi. He also compiled two anthologies of poems, Diwan (in Turki) and Mubaiyan (in Persian).
Babar is rightly considered the founder of the Mughal Empire, even though the work of consolidating the empire was performed by his grandson Akbar. Babar, moreover, provided the magnetic leadership that inspired the next two generations.
Babar was a military adventurer of genius and an empire builder of good fortune, with an engaging personality. He was also a gifted Turki poet, which would have won him distinction apart from his political career, as well as a lover of nature who constructed gardens wherever he went and complemented beautiful spots by holding convivial parties. Finally, his prose memoirs, the Bābur-nāmeh, have become a renowned autobiography. They were translated from Turki into Persian in Akbar’s reign (1589), were translated into English, Memoirs of Babar, in two volumes, and were first published in 1921–22. They portray a ruler unusually magnanimous for his age, cultured, and witty, with an adventurous spirit and an acute eye for natural beauty.
In 1530, Babur fell sick. His brother-in-law wanted to grab the throne, by by-passing Humayun (Babur’s eldest son) after Babur’s death. Humayun rushed to Agra to protect his claim to the throne, but he fell seriously ill, as per earlier people, his life got spare as Babur cried out to God to spare Humayun’s life, offering his own. On January 5, 1531, when Babur was 47 years old passed away, and at that time Humayun was 22 years of age, acquired the Empire.