Aurangzeb Alamgir (AD 1658-1707)
Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir, commonly known as Aurangzeb or Alamgir, was the sixth Mughal ruler to rule India. His reign lasted from 1858 until his death in 1808. He ruled the Indian subcontinent for more than half a century. He was the longest-reigning Mughal ruler after Akbar. During his lifetime he tried his best to expand the Mughal Empire in Southern India, but after his death, the Mughal Empire started shrinking.
The Mughal Empire reached the climax of its expansion under Aurangzeb’s rule. He was perhaps the wealthiest and the most powerful person of his time, who through his conquests in South India, spread the Mughal Empire in twelve and a half million square miles and ruled over 15 crore people, which was 1/4 of the world’s population. Aurangzeb imposed Fatwa-e-Alamgiri (based on Sharia or Islamic law) on the entire empire and also imposed additional taxes on non-Muslims for some time. He was the first Muslim ruler to apply Sharia to non-Muslim people. He destroyed many Hindu shrines and got Guru Tegh Bahadur killed.
Aurangzeb’s early life
Aurangzeb belonged to Babur’s clan, who is considered the founder of the Mughal Empire. At the time of Aurangzeb’s birth, his father Shah Jahan was the Governor of Gujarat. Aurangzeb was taken hostage in Lahore by his grandfather Jahangir at the age of just 9, because of his father’s failure in a war. Two years later in 1628, when Shah Jahan was proclaimed King of Agra, Aurangzeb and his elder brother Dara Shikoh returned to live with their parents.
Once in 1633, some wild elephants attacked Agra, causing panic among the subjects, Aurangzeb bravely risked his life, confronted these elephants and locked them in a cell. Seeing this, his father was very happy and weighed him with gold and gave him the title of Bahadur. Aurangzeb lived a holy life.
In his personal life, he was an ideal person. He was completely free from all the enemies that were common among the kings of Asia. He lived a life like Yeti. He used to be very restrained in food, clothing and all other amenities of life. While busy with the administration, he used to take time to earn some money by copying the religious book Quran and sealing the caps to meet his needs.
Aurangzeb became his father’s favorite with his understanding, at the age of 18, he was made the Subedar of Deccan in 1636. In 1637 Aurangzeb married the princess of Safavid, Dilras Banu Begum, who was his first wife. A sister of Aurangzeb died suddenly in 1644, despite being such a big thing, Aurangzeb did not immediately go to his house in Agra, he went home several weeks later. This became a big reason for the family dispute, due to this, Shah Jahan removed Aurangzeb from the post of Subdivision of Deccan.
On 28 May 1633, when the Mughal Empire was at war, suddenly a combat elephant struck their bodies, causing them to fight in battle even after being injured for several days, almost the entire area of the war was filled with elephants and He died at the end of fighting and after being inspired by this bravery, he was given the title of Bahadur. Despite being weak in the last war, he did not give up. Was not considered. He was a fearless warrior of the Mughal Empire. He always believed that if you would have given up on seeing the strength of the enemy without fighting, then no one was worse than you.
There is no doubt that Aurangzeb was the great emperor of the Mughal Sultanate and his time was the golden age of prosperity of the Mughal Empire. During the reign of Aurangzeb, there was an influx of war-rebellion-repression-climbing, etc. The number and strength of Sikhs in the West were increasing. He eventually defeated Bijapur and Golconda in the south, but in the meantime, Shivaji’s Maratha army was increasing in strength. Shivaji was arrested by Aurangzeb, but when Shivaji and Sambhaji escaped, they became very concerned about him. Marathas increased their strength in the whole country, even after Shivaji’s death, the Marathas troubled Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb wanted to make India a Muslim country, he committed great atrocities on Hindus and stopped celebrating Hindu festivals completely. Aurangzeb had also levied an additional tax on the non-Muslim people, he used to insist on the people of Kashmir to follow the Muslim religion. When Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur stood with the Kashmiri people and opposed this, Aurangzeb hanged him. He broke many temples and built mosques in its place. He had once again started the practice of sati, in the state of Aurangzeb, eating and drinking meat, drinking and prostitution increased. Hindus were not given any work in the Mughal Empire.
Seeing the increasing atrocities of Aurangzeb, the Marathas revolted against Aurangzeb in 1660, followed by the Jats in 1669, Satnami in 1672, Sikhs in 1675 and Rajputs in 1679 against Aurangzeb. In 1686, the British East India Company also revolted against Aurangzeb. He won many of these battles, but the victory does not always remain with one, successive revolts one after another, the Mughal Empire was shaken and its unity began to break. Aurangzeb’s severe austerity also did not work. Art, dance and music went away from the empire, neither the elders were respected here, nor the women were respected. The whole empire was subdued under the orthodox talk of Islam.
During the last time of Aurangzeb, the emphasis of Marathas in the south was greatly increased. The imperial army was not getting success in suppressing them. Therefore, in 1683 he himself went south with the army. He remained in the same campaign for the last 25 years of his reign, while away from the capital. He was also injured by an elephant hit during the war. Due to which he continued to fight in the war even after being hurt for several days, almost the entire area of the war was filled with weapons and he died on March 3, 1707 AD. And inspired by this bravery, he was given the title of Bahadur. Even after weakening in the last war, he did not give up. He was a fearless warrior of the Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb was considered the most powerful and powerful king in history.