His successors conquered Syria, Egypt, North Africa, Spain and Iran within 6 years after the vafat (death) of Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam in about 632 AD. At this time, the Khalifa Empire had spread from a place called Lyre in France to the river Oxus and Kabul.
After Caliphate, a ‘Khilafat’ institution was formed, which decided who is the successor of Islam? Hajj. Abu Bakr, a friend of Muhammad SA, was declared his successor. The first 4 Caliphs performed the Hajj. Obtained the Khilafat because of his relationship with Muhammad. Among them, Islam expanded during the period of the Umayyads and the Abbasids. The Abbasids held power in Iran. The Zoroastrians of Iran either had to accept Islam or they fled to Sindh. When the invasions started increasing in Sindh too, they settled in Gujarat.
After the 7th century, Arab and Turkic Muslims began to attack India. Arab caliphs launched several campaigns on India. Earlier India also included Afghanistan. According to some historians, in 870 AD, the Arab commander Yakub Ales had captured Afghanistan. Earlier, Mohammed bin Qasim invaded Sindh and Multattan of India and cleared the way for the rule of the players here.
Muhammad bin Qasim:
Islamic rule in India expanded at the end of the 7th century by Muhammad bin Qasim’s invasion of Sindh and subsequent Muslim rulers. In about 712, Muhammad bin Qasim, nephew and son-in-law of the Iraqi Arab ruler Al Hajjaj, led a successful campaign on Sindh and the Baloch at the age of 17.
The Islamic Caliphate launched several campaigns for Sindh Fatah. A contingent of 10 thousand soldiers were sent with camels and horses to attack Sindh. During the 74 years from 638 to 711 AD, 9 Caliphs invaded Sindh 15 times. The 15th invasion was led by Mohammed bin Qasim.
Muhammad bin Qasim was a very cruel warrior. The daughter of Diwan Gundumal of Sindh accepted Sir Katwana, but did not become the wife of Mir Qasim. According to the research of Webdunia, the king Dahir (became king in 679 AD) and his wives and daughters also gave their lives to protect their motherland and identity. The stories of all the kings of Sindh country are very poignant and painful. Today Sindh country has become a province of Pakistan. King Dahir singlehandedly fought the poor of Arabia and Iran. Nobody supported him but some people betrayed him.
Who was Muhammad bin Qasim?
Muhammad bin Qasim was an Arab warlord of the Umayyad Khilafat in the early period of Islam. At the age of 17, he was sent to attack the Indian subcontinent. Qasim was born in the city of Taif in Saudi Arabia. He was a member of the al-Sakif clan. His father was Qasim bin Yusuf who was succeeded by his Tau Hajjaz bin Yusuf after his death. He married Zubaidah, the daughter of Hajjaj, and was then sent off to attack Sindh through the Makran coast. Qasim’s campaign was controlled by sitting in a city called Hajjaj Kufa.
A description of the events is found in how Kasim died. According to the historical squadron named ‘Chachnama’, when Qasim sent the gifts of King Dahir Sen’s daughters to the Khalifa, the Khalifa considered it insulting that Qasim had already looted his honor and now sent it to the Khalifa. Understanding this, the Khalifa wrapped Muhammad bin Qasim in the bull’s skin and brought him back to Damascus and he died of suffocation after being locked in the same skin. But later the Khalifa came to know that Dahirseni’s daughters lied, and she chose the three daughters in the living wall.
According to Iranian historian Balazuri in the second incident, the story was different. The new Khalifa was an enemy of Hajjaj and he persecuted all the relatives of Hajjaj. He later imprisoned Muhammad bin Qasim in the city of Mosul in Iraq and died there due to harsh behavior and beaten him.