American revolution 1776 is considered an interesting chapter of British colonialism. This was an event affecting the politics of the whole world, not only for England and America. In relation to this incident, the statement of Webster is noteworthy,
Why did the people of the American colonies declare a liberation struggle against the British government? What were the consequences of this incident? Etc. are questions that arise naturally in the mind of every student of history. The solution of these questions is the subject matter of this article.
Due to America’s Revolution 1776
The British colonies (settlements) in the Americas numbered thirteen in total. They did not have any kind of unity in terms of economic, religious and political.
Each colony had its own separate administration. England had a very limited amount of authority over its colonies.
In each colony, a Governor General was appointed by the British Government. Although England was responsible for protecting the colonies, the colonies generally protected themselves. England used to ask for raw materials from these colonies, and manufactured goods were sent to these colonies.
Thus, in comparison to the colonies of other great powers, the condition of the colonies of England was satisfactory. Despite this, why did the Americans revolutionize against the Government of England? This is a debatable question.
The reasons for this revolution can be understood through the following points
(i) Religious differences between the people of England and America.
Except for England, the British settlers came to England saddened by religious atrocities, most of them were not going to believe in Anglican Church (Protestant) whereas in England only Anglican Church (Protestant) was recognized.
Therefore, religious differences existed between the people living in England and America, which gradually increased and then the path of struggle was paved.
(ii) The feeling of freedom among the Americans-
The people who settled in America had a feeling of freedom from the very beginning, it was further awakened by the then writers and thinkers (Jefferson, Thomas Paine, Milton, Locke etc.).
Locke’s ideas particularly influenced the American people for the struggle for independence. That is why it is said that this American revolution was particularly influenced by Locke’s ideas.
Jefferson was an important contributor to America’s revolution, he brought the revolution closer by spreading a sense of freedom to the American public.
Jefferson himself wrote the document declaring independence on 4 July 1776 AD at the conference in Philadelphia. Tomas Penn was a famous American thinker, influenced by his ideas, freedom struggles started in many countries of the world;
He was an international revolutionary, he had written world-renowned books called ‘Commonsense’ and ‘The American Crisis’.
Also James Otis, Patrick Henry developed a sense of independence through his books. In this way, these thinkers, writers, revolutionaries had paved the path of revolution by inciting the feeling of independence among the Americans.
(iii) The discontent emerging from the trade policy of England—
England considered its American colonies to be a good means of profit, so a special policy was adopted with regard to trade with the colonies, which caused the Americans to be very angry;
The dissatisfaction of the Americans increased as the government of England started imposing arbitrary taxes on them, this displeasure paved the way for the revolution.
(iv) Americans’ attachment to England ended.
A substantial number of people from different countries of Europe had immigrated to America; Among them were Irish, Wales, Scottish, Dutch, French etc. They had no attachment to England, so when the Government of England imposed taxes on them, they all became disgruntled and eventually became oriented towards the revolution.
(v) Administration related differences-
Americans were motivated for autonomous rule, but the government of England was not ready to relax its control over them; In every British colony of America, the Governor used to appoint the Government of England.
While the British colonial colonies wanted to keep their control over these governors; In such a situation, it was natural that paved the way for the revolution.
(vi) Determination of the expenditure of the maintenance of the standing army from the Americans.
For the protection of the Americans, the Government of England decided to have a permanent army of 10,000 soldiers, whose maintenance was decided to be taken from the Americans.
For this, some additional taxes were imposed on the Americans. The Americans strongly opposed these taxes, as a result these taxes were started to be collected harshly, as a result there was dissatisfaction which paved the way for the revolution.
(vii) Self-reliance of American people –
Americans had been working hard for almost 150 years and now they had become self-sufficient. The price of American goods began to rise in the European markets.
When he became self-sufficient, he began to suffer the slavery of England, so he was determined to struggle to become independent from the slavery of England, leading to the path of revolution.
(vii) Effect of the Seven Year War-
The French were mostly settled in Canada, who believed in Roman Catholicism, the British settled in all areas of the United States, who believed in the Protestant religion,
Initially, the American British feared that if they fought against England, the French of Canada might attack them, taking advantage of the opportunity.
But when Canada also came under the dominion of England after the Seven Year War (1756–1763 AD), the fear of the French invasion of Canada on the Americans was eradicated and the Americans decided to fight against England. The major events of the American freedom struggle are mentioned below:
(1) Stamp Act (Stamp Act) –
The Stamp Act passed in 1765 AD is the most important event of the American freedom struggle. According to this act, it has been ensured that on the papers on which the Americans will write the transaction, they will inevitably have to stamp (stamp) on it.
This was strongly opposed by the American colonists. As a result, the Stamp Act was repealed in 1766 AD. Apart from this, Sugar Act (1764 AD) and Currency Act also showed its negative effect.
(2) Import tax-
The British government imposed an import tax on the American colonists in 1767 AD. The American colonists strongly opposed it. He started boycotting the goods of England.
(3) Boston Tea Party–
The Boston Tea Party (1773 AD) was one such event. Which spread excitement between Britain and the colonists. With the permission of the British government, the East India Company based in India started to have tea directly in the American colonies,
Which was opposed by the colonists and at that time when the ship loaded with tea boxes reached Boston harbor, the colonists disguised as Red Indian and entered the ships.
thrown into the sea. This phenomenon is known as ‘Boston Tea Party’ in world history.
(4) Declaration of American Independence and commencement of war-
The Boston Massacre ‘,’ Boston Tea Party ‘and otherwise, the above circumstances and events made the war standard between the government of England and the Americans mandatory.
The Government of England carried out a harsh repression cycle against the rebellions that had arisen in America, the Americans there, in 1774 AD, to get rid of England’s slavery and to end the exploitation policy of England.
held a convention in the city of Philadelphia.
In this conference, it was decided to submit a memorandum to George III (King of England) to end all restrictions.
In 1775 AD, the American army of the British fought valiantly against the soldiers of England at a place called Lewingston. This was the first war of the American freedom struggle. Now all the Americans declared their independence on July 4, 1776 AD and from England. They broke up their relationship.
The United States was declared a sovereign state. With this, the war of independence started. In 1776, George Washington was made the supreme commander of the civilian army.
Under his direction, in the battles of Saratoga and Parktown 1781 AD, the civil army defeated England’s army and won a decisive victory. The British general in this war was Lord Cornwallis.
This war lasted until 1783 AD. In the end, the United States was born after the Paris Treaty of 1783 AD, having achieved decisive success. The following were the conditions of the Paris treaty:
1. England granted complete independence to the 13 American colonies.
2. The Mississippi River was accepted as the border between the two countries between Canada and the United States.
3. Spain was given back Minorca and Florida.
4. France was given St. Lucia and Tubago in Western Islands, West Africa, Senegal, and Chandranagar, Pondicherry and Mahi in India.
5. France was empowered to undertake fortifications in Dunkirk.
6. Pre-war situation was brought back in England and the Netherlands.
7.The new American nation was demarcated along the Ohio River.
A written constitution of the independent United States was created in 1789 AD and it came into force only in 1789 AD. With this, George Washington was elected the first President of the United States of America.
Due to the conquest of the American colonies
The following were the reasons for the victory of the American colonies in the American freedom struggle:
(1). Freedom and sense of unity.
In the American colonies, the sense of freedom and unity that was communicated against England increased steadily. The Government of England did not understand the importance of the independence of the colonies and the feeling of unity, as a result it had to face defeat in the war.
(2). Washington’s efficient leadership.
George Washington was a great soldier and a skilled leader of his time. Washington’s powerful army sourced England’s teeth in the war.
(3). Disqualification of English.
From the point of view of war operations, there was no harmony between the army and the naval army proved to be utterly unfit.
(4). Distance from the battlefield of England.
The battle site to be fought between England and America was located about 3 thousand miles from England. Due to the extreme distance, it took a long time for the British government to send troops, munitions etc. to the battle site, which the colonists took full advantage of.
(5). Hostility from countries of Europe.
At the time of American freedom struggle, England had enmity with many countries of Europe such as France, Spain, Asia and Holland. Due to hostility, no European country gave any kind of support to England, in such a situation the victory of the colonists was certain.
Effects and achievements of the American Revolution | Result of american revolution
America’s revolution is accepted as one of the most important events in world history.
is; The main effects and achievements (results) of this revolution were-
(i) Establishment of the United States of America.
This revolution of America resulted in the establishment of a new, powerful and growing nation, the United States of America.
(ii) The universal spread of the spirit of fighting for freedom-
This revolution of America was a victory of freedom, so the impact of this revolution on the whole world was reflected. Other countries of the world inspired the struggle for freedom against their independence, this revolution
The people of the then France also took inspiration from this revolution (in 1789 AD) for freedom-equality in their country.
(iii) Republic-based governance system-
The Revolution of America established a republic after independence, which had an impact on other countries; Later, other countries also established a system of governance based on republics.
(iv) The tradition of written constitution started.
After the Revolution of America, the first written constitution was made in America, which was followed by other countries of the world.
(v) Establishment of democracy –
After the revolution in America, citizens gained the rights to freedom and equality because the goal of the American Revolution was to establish a state based on freedom and equality, thus establishing democracy for the first time in the world; Later, many countries of the world were inspired by this revolution to establish democracy.
(vi) The decline of Spain’s power internationally.
The United States of America, established as a result of the American Revolution, emerged as a powerful nation in the ‘Americas continent’, causing the collapse of Spain’s power internationally.
(vii) End of First British Empire-
After the British colonies in America became independent, England’s first empire and trade system came to an end, it was a direct result of the American Revolution.
(viii) Herald of the Second Kingdom of England-
Many people (about 45,000) migrated to Canada during the American Revolution, these people were more and more loyal to England; The British were also settling in Australia and New Zealand.
And their suzerainty over these areas was also established. Thus the Second Kingdom of England was established which was more elaborate than the First British Empire.
(ix) The end of the personal rule of George III (King of England).
The American Revolution brought an end to the private rule of King George III of England, as this conflict struck his honor.
The cabinet system was developed under the leadership of the Prime Minister of England, Pitt the Younger. In this way, the Revolution of America (1776 AD) had widely influenced mankind.
George Washington, a courageous and gallant soldier during the American independence struggle, became the chief commander of the American Civilian Army in 1776, he defeated England’s forces in the battle of Saratoga and Parktown and won a decisive victory.